White Citizen CouncilsThese local southern organizations targeted blacks who joined the NAACP creating barriers to mortgages, jobs and voter registration. Members of these organizations were more upwardly mobile than their KKK counterparts (wikipedia). The first councils formed after Brown but grew in 1955 after Montgomery.
AG sings at Lincoln CollegeAG performs for the College Women's Extravaganza.
Polio inoculation programA nationwide inoculation program begins using Salk's polio vaccine.
Lincoln University teaching career endsAG finishes the semester and her teaching career.
Warsaw PactSeveral eastern bloc countries signed the Warsaw Pact as a counterpoint to NATO. This encouraged a greater push by the USIA to increase worldwide propaganda, including the Goodwill Tours.
Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955)Bethune, founder of Bethune-Cookman, dies in Daytona Florida.
Southeastern Tennis Tournament-Durham, NCMixed doubles:
S. AG/Whirlwind defeat Ferguson/McGriff; 6-1, 6-2
F. AG/Whirlwind defeat Beverley Coleman/Babe Jones; 6-2, 6-3
Chicago Defender 16 July; Alabama Tribune 15 July.
Rose Taubele Tournament (3rd annual) - Throggs Neck, NYWomen's singles:
S.AG defeats Carmen Lampe; score unk
F.AG defeats Ivy Cover-Ramsey: 6-0, 7-5.
New York Age 26 July.
New York State Women's Tennis Championship - Pelham Manor, NYWomen's singles:
F. AG defeats June Kroeger
F. (?) AG/Ivy Cover d Isabel Troccole/JK
Chicago Defender 23 July;
This tournament/results cannot be confirmed.
Eastern States Women's Tournament - Haverford, PA at Merion Cricket Club. Mixed doubles final is played at Forest Hills on Sept 6Singles:
1. AG d. Alice Gottshall; 6-0, 6-1
2. AG d. Ruth Jeffrey; 6-2, 6-1
3. AG d. Kay Hubbell; 6-3, 6-4
Q. AG d. Darlene Hard; 6-2, 11-9
S. AG d. Janet Hopps;
F. Louise Brough d. AG; 1-6, 6-2, 6-1
1. AG/Kurt Nielson D. Railey/Jessup; 6-0, 6-1
2. AG/KN d. Ruth Jeffrey/Clothier; 6-3, 6-4
Q.AG/KN d. Belmar Gunderson/Hal Burrows
S. AG/KN d. JHopps/Jerry Moss; 6-4, 6-3
F. AG/Kurt Nielson d. Yola Ramirez/Sammy Giamaiva; 6-8, 6-4, 6-2
Philadelphia Inquirer 19-24 July; Daily Press 25 July
Red Rose Tournament - Lancaster, PAWomen's singles:
1. AG d. Julia Kurtz; 6-0, 6-1.
2. AG d. Sally Lied; 6-2, 6-0.
S. AG d. Mary Albright; 6-2, 6-4
F. AG defeats Alice Fehrenbach: 6-1, 6-1.
Q.Bill Davis/AG d. Harold Fellenbaum/Janet Genberling; 6-0, 6-2.
S. BD/AG d. Fred Steinman/Mary Albright; 6-4, 6-4.
F. BD/AG d. Gil Rothrock/Betty Smith; 6-3, 7-5
Eastern Grass Court Tournament - Orange Lawn Tennis Court; Orange, NJWomen's singles:
3. AG d. Lois Felix; 3-6, 7-5, 6-3
Q. AG d. Rosa Maria Reyes; 6-3, 6-0
S. Barbara Breitt d. AG; 6-3, 6-0
F. BB/DHard d. AG/DKnode; 6-4, 10-8
Tampa Tribune 05 & 07 Aug; Hartford Courant 07 Aug, NY Amsterdam News 13 Aug
American Tennis Association - WilberforceWomen's singles:
3. AG defeats Dorothy Lopez; 6-1, 6-0
Q. AG defeats Rosemary Darden; 6-0, 6-1
S. AG defeats Jean Glover; 6-1, 6-3
F. AG defeats Nana Vaughan; 6-3, 6-0 (9th consecutive win for AG)
F. AG/Whirlwind defeat Nana & Quentin Vaughan; 6-3, 0-6, 6-3
New Journal and Guide 27 Aug & 03 Sep; Philadelphia Tribune 20 Aug; NY Age 03 Sep
Emmett Till lynchingEmmett Louis Till was a 14-year-old African American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955, after being accused of offending a white woman in her family's grocery store.
Mississippi lynchingsAfter the 1955 murder of Emmett Till, several gentlemen of the Benton County area were lynched in association with Till’s death. Oliver Maxey, the Panam Brothers, John Henry Remmer, and Jones and Hugh Smith were lynched.
National Tennis Tournament (68th)-Forest HillsWomen's singles:
1. AG d. Sara Mae Turber; 6-3, 6-2
2. AG d. Nell Hopman; 6-3, 6-1
3. Beverly Fleitz d. AG; 6-2, 6-2
Afro American 17 Sep; Hartford Courant 05 & 08 Sep
Pan American Tennis Tournament - Mexico CitySingles:
Q. AG d. Karol Fageros; 6-4, 7-5.
S. Angela Mortimer d. AG: 16-14, 6-1
Q. AG/Karol Fageros d. Mary Ann Mitchell/Rosa Maria Reyes; 2-6, 6-2, 6-3.
S. Buxton/Mortimer d. AG/KF; 7-5, 6-1
ANGELA BUXTON AND MORTIMER ARE THERE.
Vietnam War begins - US involvementThe Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Goodwill Tour beginsAG is selected by the US State Dept. to participate in a Far East Goodwill Tour. She arrives in London from NY on Nov 30 staying at the Hotel Washington.
See Nov 15 itinerary.
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus BoycottRosa Louise McCauley Parks was an American activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery bus boycott. Four days after her arrest the year long boycott started. The United States Congress has called her "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement".
Goodwill Tour-RangoonAG arrives in Rangoon and stays at Hotel Strand.
See Nov 15 itinerary.
Goodwill Tour-CalcuttaAG arrives in Calcutta Dec 10 and stays at the Great Eastern Hotel.
see Nov 15 itinerary.
Goodwill Tour - All India Tennis Championship (New Delhi)Women's singles:
Q(?). AG d. Mrs. Taqi Butt; 6-0, 6-0.
S. AG d. ABuxton; 6-3, 6-4.
F. AG d. Saichiko Kamo: 6-2, 6-2
F. AG/KF d. Pat Ward/AB; 6-1, 6-4.
Mixed doubles (I think it was a final):
F. Ham Richardson/AG d. R. Krishnan/T. Zehdon; 6-3, 6-1
Baton Rouge Advocate 15 Dec.
Goodwill Tour - New DelhiAG arrives in New Delhi and stays at the Imperial or Maiden Hotels. However, she must have arrived earlier for the All India tournament on Dec 18.
Goodwill Tour - LahoreAG stays at Faletti Hotel.
Nov 15 itinerary
Goodwill Tour - New DelhiAG arrives back in New Delhi. Nov 15 Itinerary indicates there may be a change in schedule at this point. Great Eastern Hotel.
Holmes vs. AtlantaLocal Atlanta physician, Hamilton Holmes, sued Atlanta to desegregate the city's public golf courses. The US Supreme Court ruled in Hamilton's favor and public golf courses, like Bobby Jones Municipal Golf Course, were opened to all.