AP World History Units 1-6 Timeline

Timeline created by mkeisler22
In History
  • Period:
    618
    to
    1279

    Tang and Song Dynasties

    Through the Tang and Song Dynasties, China experienced major economic growth. From the improvements on foreign trade stemming from the use of paper money, and the production of porcelain, silk, metal, guns and gunpowder, to the growth of agriculture and education, these were prosperous times. The bureaucratic government led to more advanced education for civil service exams, an improvement in transportation and the agricultural developments such as Champa rice to support the growing population.
  • Period:
    750
    to
    1250

    Abbasid Caliphate

    The Abbasid Caliphate was a time of imperative development in Islamic history. This empire was known for being a trading and education hotspot. The House of Wisdom, a college in Baghdad, made major advancements in medical studies along with studies in mathematics, science, literature and architecture by many Islamic scholars. With increased knowledge also brought more trade, and the new improvements to the process of making paper money. The “Islamic Golden Age” fell due to the Turks takeover.
  • Period:
    800
    to
    1400

    Feudalism in Europe

    Feudalism was a common government through Europe. This structure would separate individuals depending on their roles. Kings would top the pyramid, having nobles and knights to protect them. In return the nobles would receive a fief, a piece of land to live on. The nobles then divided their land to those under them who would provide taxes, crafts, labor, protection and food for those around them. This system would organize the people of an area so each would receive, and give something in trade.
  • Period:
    1200
    to
    1572

    Mesoamerican Empires

    The empires of the Aztecs and Incas were advanced civilizations in Mexico and South America. Both of these powerful empires had extensive road systems, advanced farming techniques, organized tribute systems and governments, and communication systems. The Aztecs had a prosperous trade network, while the Incas excelled in terrace farming. These advancements in government, agriculture, and technology were brought into Europe by explorers, making an impression throughout the world during the 1500’s.
  • Period:
    1206
    to
    1294

    Mongol Empire

    The Mongol empire was known for the ruthless ways of their leader, Temujin. Destructive and chaotic, the Mongols overtook territories and controlled trade along the Silk road easily due to violence. Due to the strict discipline and threats, the Mongols were a loyal group that expanded rapidly. Gaining wealth, and attention, the troops were successful in ruling many territories from their centralized government. The widespread conquests led to the spread of new war strategies and the black death.
  • Period:
    1210
    to
    1526

    Delhi Sultanate

    The Delhi Sultanate was an empire located in Northern India that followed the Sharia law. Unlike China, the Delhi Sultanate never was successful in establishing an organized, efficient bureaucracy. This made it very difficult to impose the policies that the Sultanate wanted to enforce on the people. Towards the beginning of the Sultan’s rule, overtaking Southern India was a main goal for the Sultans, however the focus was then shifted to deflecting the Mongols from overtaking their government.
  • Period:
    1235
    to

    The Mali Empire

    Mali was a powerful and wealthy empire. Due to the major trade of gold, it was a controller of trade throughout Africa, as people would pay taxes to trade throughout Mali. The Mali empire was also known as being a center for education after the fall of the Abbasid caliphate. The rulers of Mali made an impression on their own citizens, and all who traded through North and West Africa, uniting the two regions. Mali’s existence also spread Islam through Africa, leaving a legacy for years to come.
  • Period:
    1271
    to
    1368

    Yuan Dynasty

    The time of the Yuan dynasty in China, led by Kublai Khan, the grandson of Temujin, was prosperous. Khan proved himself to be a skilled ruler when he successfully governed China, while improving foreign trade and embracing Chinese culture. However, towards the end of the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols started to separate themselves from the Chinese, and China attempted, but failed, to overtake other countries. Eventually, the Yuan Dynasty was overthrown by a group called the "White Lotus Society”.
  • Period:
    1300
    to

    European Renaissance

    The European Renaissance brought back interest to the arts and education. This time was a time when the middle class was growing, and teachers and craftspeople were thriving in their business. Not only was the revival of the study of classical Greek and Roman literature, art and language, but the Renaissance also brought forth humanism, the study of what the human race’s power could do within the world. The Renaissance was the birthplace of nationalism, and powerful monarchies throughout Europe.
  • Period:
    1300
    to

    Ottoman Empire

    The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest, longest lasting Islamic empires. After moving the capital from Constantinople to Istanbul, trade boomed. Istanbul provided access to the Bosporus Strait and the Ottoman Empire grew outwards from there. This empire, often included with the other “Gunpowder Empires” filled the void that the Mongols left through Asia, and were the first empires to successfully use gunpowder in an effective way. This empire fell due to WWI, when the Allies defeated them.
  • Period:
    1342
    to
    1353

    Bubonic Plague

    The Bubonic Plague, or the “Black Death” was a disease that was spread through the Silk Road and by the Mongols. Canvasaries all over Europe and Asia were where merchants rested during trade, and infested with fleas, which were the main transfer of the plague. This plague ended up reducing European and Asian populations my ⅓, creating a large hole in the economies and governments of many different countries. The Bubonic Plague was a long term disease that affected almost all of Asia and Europe.
  • Period:
    1368
    to

    Ming Dynasty

    With the rise of new rulers of China also brought back traditional Chinese culture and traditions. The Ming Dynasty rulers removed all aspects of Mongol culture, bringing back the civil service exam, the Great Wall of China, and improved education. Under the rule of the Ming Dynasty, China was stable and powerful. Ming rulers then started to experiment in voyages, and mercantilism, with booming agriculture. The Forbidden City was constructed under Ming rule, where the rulers were isolated.
  • Period:
    1400
    to

    Age of Exploration

    The Age of Exploration was a time where the European powers wanted to find a trade route to Asia that was not the Silk Road. Due to the harsh taxes throughout the trading posts and the location on the Atlantic Ocean, water routes were the main focus for the Europeans' journey. Portugal was the first to find a successful route after many years of trial and error, but these trials brought the discoveries of the Americas by Christopher Colombus in 1492, leading to the colonization of the New World.
  • Period:
    1492
    to

    Spanish Colonization

    The Spanish colonized many places throughout exploration. The Philippines and South America were the main focus. Manilla, capital of the Philippines, was a hotspot for trade with China, and the whole country was converted and colonized. The Spanish also put the encomienda system into effect, where the differing classes depended on race. The silver industry was the largest export from South America, on haciendas. Overall, the Spanish spread and explored with new opportunities rapidly opening up.
  • Period:
    1500
    to

    Transatlantic Slave Trade

    The Atlantic Slave Trade was when the colonial powers brought Africans to the colonies via a sea route called the Middle Way. This killed many due to the spread of infectious diseases. The transport not only brought more labor to the colonies, but also spread African culture to the New World. Bringing new crops, agricultural devices, population migration, Creole language, music like the banjo, Voodoo and gumbo, the New World was heavily influenced by this forced migration.
  • Period:
    1514
    to

    Portuguese Trading Post Empire

    The Portugese, compared to the other European powers, were much more advanced in their technology of ships and weapons. Due to this, when the Portugese found a successful sea route to Asia, they gained control of the coasts of both Africa and India, and were able to establish trading posts along the way. This put the Portugese at an advantage, as now they could control all of the trade through the sea route to Asia. With the trade they brought more exposure to Asia, changing it forever.
  • Period:
    1517
    to

    Reformation

    The Reformation was the time right after the Catholic Church split into two branches, the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. These two branches had many theological disagreements, and Martin Luther was one to point them out in his writings of the “95 Theses” against the Roman Catholic Church. Groups then formed throughout Europe that were against the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman Catholic Church took matters into their own hands and fought against the Protestants attacks.
  • Period:
    1520
    to

    Mughal Empire

    The Mughal empire was also a part of the “Gunpowder Empires” and was founded by Babur. A centralized government was formed, and India started to expand. The next ruler, Akbar, took great strides in improving the Mughal empire. He welcomed all religions, embraced learning and art, and made the empire wealthy. After his reign, the empire declined and was completely turned around. The last ruler banned music, and put down Hindus, causing a weak empire to form by the time the British took over.
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa Shogunate

    The Tokugawa Shogunate was also known as the “Edo Period” and the “Period of Great Peace”, due to the location of the capital and how prosperous this time of peace and cultural growth was for Japan. There were many social and governmental changes, like the decline of feudalism and the change in the social class of the samurai. Literature and art such as kabuki performances became more popular, and silk production grew. The silver mine was constantly used for trade. This time was great for Japan.
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty

    The Qing rulers were Manchu, so Manchu culture was heavily enforced upon the Chinese during this time, although some things were not changed. China’s bureaucratic government and the civil service exam continued, however mainly Manchu people were selected for the high government positions. Throughout their rule, the Qing Dynasty encouraged Western education and reopened foreign trade, trading silver and silk for different goods. The Qing Dynasty expanded China greatly through their time of reign.
  • Period: to

    Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment was developed by the Scientific Revolution and the Renaissance. This period of time brought optimistic thinking, where education was improved and ideas about improving the government were discussed. Nationalism started to increase and many revolutions were caused due to the rise of ideas about representation and how politics should be structured throughout countries. Science was also growing, as natural laws became a more widely accepted idea after humanism in the Renaissance.
  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial revolution changed the entire world, as there were social changes and increased mechanization of production. These changes started in Britain, and spread rapidly to developed countries. These changes were due to increasing population, and the development of technology, causing work to be more efficient, transforming many areas to be urban. This changed the roles of women and kids, and brought social reforms and labor unions to improve the working conditions in the factories.
  • Period: to

    American Revolution

    The American Revolution was based on the American’s desire for representation in British parliament, because they paid taxes to the British government. Before the war, Britain was raising the tax among the colonists after the French and Indian war, as they felt that the debt was the colonists responsibility. This revolution set an example as being the first successful rebellion of a colony from its homeland, and the free area’s government was based on the ideas of Enlightenment.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was caused by many factors, and Enlightenment ideas were certainly one of them. This Revolution was also caused by the tremendous amount of debt that France was in after king Louis XIV got involved in many other wars between Britain, including the American Revolution and Spanish Succession Wars. The French citizens wanted to get rid of feudalism and acted savagely to remove those in the way. The Reign of Terror was one of the examples of this where Louis XIV was beheaded.
  • Period: to

    Haitian Revolution

    The Haitian Revolution was when Maroons, or escaped slaves, revolted against their European masters in the French controlled Haiti. The Maroons were violent towards their “owners”, burning their plantations and houses after murdering them. Toussaint L’Ouverture eventually became the leader of the revolt agaisnt slavery, and later became the general of the armies. He was captured after many years of war and executed in France before the Haitian’s independence was fully won in 1804.
  • Period: to

    Tanzimat Reforms

    The Tanzimat reforms were set in place in the Ottoman Empire after the rule of Mahmud II. These reforms secularized school, and attempted to remove corruption from the government. Infrastructure was also improved, along with the increase in foreign business opportunities and the equality of all men, no matter what religion, or race they were. These reforms were the Ottoman Empire’s response to the widespread ideas of Enlightenment, but were not completely accepted among their citizens.
  • Period: to

    Opium War

    The Opium War was caused by the Qing Dynasty enforcing the ban against opium in China. As this was a main source for the economy of Britain and the law was previously ignored, the change angered Britain, sparking a war with China. With China lacking a Navy, and their military being weak, they lost this war quickly, and the British made a Treaty with them to resolve the issue. This treaty ended up letting European powers into China in “spheres of influence” where they controlled trade.
  • Period: to

    Taiping Rebellion

    The Taiping Rebellion was caused by the Chinese citizens not approving of their leader’s course of action in the Opium wars, their desire to have a Chinese leader, and their dislike of the Christian missionaries. While not all those who tried to overthrow the government were against all three of these factors, many were. This overthrow failed however, and left only destruction of China in its path. The Bubonic plague started to come into China after famine, and the destruction of farmlands.
  • Period: to

    Sepoy Mutiny

    The Sepoy Mutiny was a violent time in India, for the sepoys, and the British officials and colonists residing in India. The sepoys made up most of the British forces in India, so the British relied on them for military purposes. At this point in time, ammunition was starting to be greased in animal fats, specifically of cows and pigs, and the sepoys, being Muslim and Hindu, were not happy. This started a war where many sepoys were killed, along with British colonists and officials.
  • Period: to

    Meiji Restoration

    While many other countries were industrializing, the Japanese felt that development was needed and exited their period of isolation. The main encouragement for this development of Japan was to protect Japan from foreign powers, which sparked the hire of foreigners to teach business owners about industry, and to implement Western reforms. Japan ended up copying many of the industrialization techniques from the West, and ended up bringing the same problems of the bad working conditions for women.
  • Period: to

    Scramble for Africa

    The European powers were very interested in conquering new lands throughout the Scramble for Africa. Africa brought new opportunities for resources, trade, and labor for the Europeans. Many of the powers came together throughout this time to organize how systems would be run in Africa, and many of the countries got straight into spreading their religion and trying to get their money’s worth for the trouble that conquering these countries created.
  • Period: to

    Berlin Conference

    The Berlin Conference was the beginning of the time period of the Scramble for Africa. Taking place in Berlin, Germany, the European powers came together, looking to set rules for establishing colonies in Africa. This meeting was not meant to be a time where the Europeans split up territory, however this entered discussions due to the eagerness of the Europeans to create trade and labor colonies. This event was also a time where Germany showed itself as an imperial power.