Civil War Timeline

Timeline created by amoni_wash
In History
  • Northwest Ordinance

    The US and England signed the Treaty of Paris ending British control over the colonies and ceding territory from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River to the US. This territory was controlled by Congress. People began moving over to this territory. All new states would come into the Union equal, with all the same powers, rights, and responsibilities as the original 13 states.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    President Jefferson signed a treaty with France buying the territory from Napoleon. Thomas Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the territory trying to find a Northwest passage or waterway that would allow for faster travel from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Set a precedent for future land acquisitions. Secured control of the Mississippi River.
  • Missouri Compromise

    In 1819 there were equal slave and free states. Missouri became a slave state, it threatened the balance of the states. Missouri was admitted as a slave state while Maine as a free state. This drew the line for the expansion of slavery at 36'30" line which is also known as the "Mason-Dixon Line." This led to bleeding Kansas.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Proposal by John C. Calhoun which says that states have the right to declare a federal law or tax null and void if it harms that state. The federal government passed a high protective tariff, which the South didn't like. Calhoun tried to nullify the tariff. Andrew Jackson wanted to maintain the federal government but he didn’t want to lose the South's support. The tariff was lowered and SC was forced to pay the tariff.
  • Texas Annexation

    Americans came to Texas so they could have more land for Cotton and slavery. Mexico outlawed slavery. Texans didn't agree and won their independence. Mexico refused to acknowledge Texas independence, and Texas could not be officially a new state because of border conflicts. Texas remained a independent republic from almost 10 years because of slavery.
  • Oregon Treaty

    Occupied and and claimed by the Americans, the British, and the Spanish. As a result of the signing of the Adams-Onis Treaty the Spanish lost their claim to the land. The Americans and British had many problems that led to the American-British border. American newspapers headlined "54'40 or fight!" This led to the US control South of the 49th parallel.
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    Mexican Cession

    Contained territories that made up most of the rest of the southwestern US which they gained from the treaty that ended the Mexican-American War. Completed manifest destiny by giving Americans control of the land from the Atlantic to the pacific. the peace treaty that ended the war was the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This resulted in the US gaining land from mexico. California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, new mexico, and part of Colorado known as the Mexican cession.
  • Compromise of 1850

    The citizens were to vote on the issue of slavery in state. California was admitted as a free state. Slavery in other Mexican cession states were declared by popular sovereignty. The sale of slaves but not slavery was allowed in Washington D.C. This resulted in the Fugitive Slave Law which required the North to return runaway slaves. This was enforced by the federal government. This increased the sectionalism and hate between the North and South.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Great Britain motivate the US to help them in opposing re-establishment of colonial allegations in Latin America. President James Monroe present the Monroe Doctrine to warn European countries not to recolonize Latin America. Execution of the Monroe Doctrine was reliant on the British navy, as US military power was limited. The Monroe Doctrine was used for future presidents participation with Latin American which resulted resentment to Latin Americans.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Stephen Douglas proposed popular sovereignty to determine whether the states would be free or slave based. This act overruled the Missouri Compromise by allowing popular sovereignty North of the 36'30". Both sides sent people to try to get more votes. This led to violent conflicts known as bleeding Kansas. This also led to a new party (The Republican Party).
  • Bleeding Kansas

    John Brown led anti-slavery fighters in Kansas before his raid on Harper Ferry. The Kansas-Nebraska Act overturned the Missouri Compromise. This had a big effect in the cause of the Civil War.
  • Battle of Bull Run

    This occurred at Bull Run Creek outside of Manassas, Virginia. The Confederacy won despite the Union's advantage. This shocked many people that thought the war would end quickly. President Abraham Lincoln replaced McDowell with General G. McClellan hoping he would lead the Union to victory. McClellan planned an attack on the confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. General Lee led his army skillfully which resulted in the Confederacy win.
  • Battle of Fort Sumter

    When Confederate forces fired on the Union they held Garrison. The garrison commander surrendered on April 13th, and fled the next day. The result of the war fell upon the economic resources of the South and North, the geographic factors, and the political and military leadership that brought the support of the citizens.
  • Battle of Antietam

    This took place at Antietam Creek, Sharpsburg, Maryland. This was the most gruesome day of the war. 23,000 soldiers were either dead or wounded. This was the first Southern invasion to the North. Lee retreated to Virginia despite the higher wins than the Union. Lincoln took this opportunity to move forward with the Emancipation Proclamation.
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    Emancipation Proclamation

    Lincoln feared the border states that still allowed slavery which would secede if he proposed the abolition of slavery throughout the Union. When the Emancipation was announced he promoted it as a "military measure" against the Confederacy. This was a turning point in the war. This document did not free the slaves. States that already had slaves were not affected. The spread of slavery was illegal.
  • Gettysburg Address

    This happened in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania by Abraham Lincoln. He visited the Gettysburg battle field to give a cemetery for the fallen soldiers. He described the Civil War as a struggle to fulfill the Declaration of Independence and preserve a nation. "Fourscore and seven years ago our father's brought forth this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and desiccated to the proposition that all men are created equal."
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    This took place in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Lincoln believed that the capture of Vicksburg was the key to bring an end to the war. Vicksburg surrender resulted in the split of the confederacy. Union gained control of the Mississippi River. This was a important turning point in the western theatre.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    This event took place in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The confederacy set off to Pennsylvania to take union ground. With the confederacy at an advantage the Union became victorious. General Lee retreated to Virginia. Nearly 1/3 of his force was dead or wounded. This was the second and last attempt of the South invading the North.
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    Presidential Reconstruction

    President Abraham Lincoln started the 10% Plan. This stated that only 10% of the voters in the 1860 election need to oath to the union and accept terms of Emancipation.High military leaders and confederate officials were involved in this. After Lincoln's assassination, President Johnson wanted to continue his plan. He granted pardons to the people who swore allegiance to the Union. As a result, Congress impeached Johnson to make sure he couldn't intervene with Congress.
  • Sherman's March to Sea

    The main goal was to capture seize the port at Savannah, Georgia. William Tecumeh Sherman led his people on a march to the sea from the Tennessee-Georgia border. He followed the total war strategy. They stole food and livestock, and burned down the houses of people who tried to fight back.
  • 13th Amendment Passed

    This was ratified almost a year later. This amendment ended slavery. Southern states had to accept the 13th amendments before they could form any governments. They were able to acknowledge the abolition of slavery. Black codes showed that the Southerners were not willing to accept the rights of freedmen.
  • 14th Amendment Passed

    This was ratified two years later. Southern states had to recognize it before joining the Union and being allowed full participation back in Congress.This gave all men birthright citizenship no matter the race. As a citizen you were protected by the Constitutions and Bill of Rights. Birthright citizenship overturned the Dred Scott decision by accepting citizenship of African Americans. This was important because this was the only time that a court ruling was overturned.
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    Congressional Reconstruction

    This was also known as Radical Reconstruction. The goal was to punish the South. This started the military reconstruction act of 1867. The goal was to split the former confederacy into 5 military districts controlled by the US Army to force the people to follow the amendments and the rights to freedmen. This granted birthright citizenship. It also granted African Americans the right to vote.
  • 15th Amendment Passed

    This was ratified less than a year later. This amendment allowed all men to vote. This motivated the start of Republican party to form it's political power in the South. They all increased democracy by protecting the rights of freedmen. African Americans voted for Republican candidates which resulted in the protection of their freedom.
  • Plessy v Ferguson

    Supreme court confirmed that segregation was legal as long as facilities were deemed equal. This case made segregation and discrimination legal. This also nullified the equal protection of the 14th amendments. This confirmed the principle of "separate but equal." This case would later be overturned during the civil rights era and the Brown v. Board of Education Case.