Eric Cooper's History of Instructional Design & Technology Timeline

Timeline created by Chop5109
  • Audiovisual Instruction Movement

    Enrichment of education through the seeing experience involving the use of all types of visual aids. Films, pictures, lantern slides, and motion picture projectors were the media of the era (the early 1900s to the late 1930s).
  • Behavioral Learning Theory

    B.F. Skinner believed that learning could be understood, explained, and predicted entirely on the basis of observable events. Behavioral learning theory influenced the early conceptions of instructional feedback.
  • World War II

    Considered the origin of Instructional Design. The Armed Forces assisted by the likes of Gagne, Briggs, and Flanagan, created training films and filmstrips to reduce the training time of military and civilian personnel.
  • Instructional Television

    The Federal Communications Commission set aside 242 television channels for educational purposes. This broadcasting was seen as a quick, efficient, inexpensive means of satisfying the nation's instructional needs.
  • U.S. response to Soviet Union launch of Sputnik

    In response to the Soviet Union beating the U.S. in the "space race," the country invested millions of dollars into improving math and science education. The material created failed to meet the mark, but it did lead to a focus on formative evaluation.
  • Behavioral Objectives

    Robert Mager wrote, "Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction," with the main focus being to teach educators how to objectives.
  • Criterion-Referenced Measures

    Robert Glaser was the first to use the term criterion-referenced measures. He concluded these measures were used to assess student entry-level behavior and to determine the extent to which students had acquired the behaviors an instructional program was designed to teach.
  • Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis

    Robert M. Gagne published the 1st edition of, "The Conditions of Learning," where he described the five domains or types of learning and the nine events of instruction.
  • Formative Evaluation

    Michael Scriven conveyed the need to try out drafts of instructional material with learners prior to the time the materials were in the final form. He coined this tryout and revision process formative evaluation and contrasted it with what he labeled summative evaluation.
  • The ADDIE Model

    ADDIE, though not a fully elaborated design model, describes a systematic approach to instructional design.
  • Dick & Carey Instructional Model

    This systems approach model based on the research of Walter Dick and Lou and James Carey. It is a nine-step iterative process and considered by some to be a simpler alternative to ADDIE.
  • Personal Computers for Instructional Purposes

    Institutions of learning at all levels reflected an increased interest in the use of personal computers for instructional purposes. They were seen as tools to automate instructional design tasks and create computer-based instruction.
  • Human Performance Improvement Movement

    This movement brought about an emphasis on on-the-job performance, business results, and non-instructional solutions to performance problems.
  • Constructivism as an Educational Philosophy

    The basic precept of constructivism is that learning is an active process of meaning-making gained in and through our experience and interactions with the world. This concept offered a shift from behavioral learning and gave the learner more say in how they learned.
  • Internet Technology as a means of Presenting Instruction

    This technology has presented growth in online learning in all levels of education, and business and industry. It has also spurred an increase in informal learning. Mobile devices and performance support tools serve as learning enablers.