Exploration to Independence

Timeline created by Abby.Ahuero
In History
  • Period:
    1,800 BCE
    to
    800

    The Maya

    The Maya were an advanced civilization that used many different types of agriculture. They also created many cities, such as Tikal.
  • Period:
    1,200 BCE
    to
    -600 BCE

    The Olmec

    The Olmec are thought to be the oldest advanced Mesoamerican culture. They created different kinds of artwork and built three large cities. War and other issues caused their demise.
  • 1095

    Pope Urban Calls for Crusades in the Holy Land

    Pope Urban Calls for Crusades in the Holy Land
    In 1095, Pope Urban wanted to kick the Muslims out of the Holy Land, and launched a series of crusades to do so.
  • 1200

    Europe is a Farming Economy

    Europe is a Farming Economy
    In 1200, Europe was not as focused on trade. Instead, people farmed goods at a manor and got some food for doing this. This was called feudalism.
  • Period:
    1200
    to
    1521

    The Aztec

    The Aztec were one of the ruling Mesoamerican civilizations until its downfall. They were very strong and formidable, and they often had human sacrifices and took over smaller civilizations.
  • 1271

    Marco Polo Travels to the East

    Marco Polo Travels to the East
    Marco Polo and his family wanted to go east to China to find riches and explore lands not explored by Europeans.
  • 1289

    Crusades End

    Crusades End
    After 200 years of fighting, the crusaders still couldn't take the Holy Land and rid it of Muslim control.
  • 1293

    Polos Journey Home

    Polos Journey Home
    The Polos journeyed home by ship, carrying with them lots of riches like ivory and porcelain. Many people died on the journey.
  • 1298

    Polo Imprisoned and Writes His Book

    Polo Imprisoned and Writes His Book
    Marco Polo captained a galley ship against Venice's rival, Genoa. He was captured. While in jail, he met a writer who encouraged him to write his book.
  • Period:
    1300
    to

    The Renaissance

    Renaissance means "rebirth". Europeans started to study Greek and Roman ideas, such as art, science, and writing.
  • Period:
    1400
    to
    1532

    The Inca

    The Inca lived in South America, and their empire was very large. The Inca people expanded their empire and created new advancements in agriculture and the arts until they were decimated by Spanish conquistadors.
  • 1415

    Portuguese Capture Fortress of Ceuta

    Portuguese Capture Fortress of Ceuta
    The capture of this fortress marked the beginning of the Portuguese's explorations and their control of the global gold market.
  • 1419

    Portuguese Discover Madeira Islands

    Portuguese Discover Madeira Islands
    With the help of Prince Henry's funding, the Portuguese could have better ships and equipment, which allowed for this discovery.
  • 1427

    Portuguese Discover Azores Islands

    Portuguese Discover Azores Islands
    Because of the new research and supplies funded by Prince Henry, the Portuguese could make this discovery.
  • 1434

    Portuguese's Successful Return Voyage Around Cape Bojador

    Portuguese's Successful Return Voyage Around Cape Bojador
    The seas around Cape Bojador were very rough, and there was dangerous fog. After at least 15 failed voyages later, they finally made it around the cape.
  • 1440

    Printing Press is Invented

    Printing Press is Invented
    In 1440, German Johann Gutenberg created the first printing press, which was a huge success. It could print books, therefore helping spread information
  • 1469

    Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella

    Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
    When Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille were married, they unified Catholic Spain and put Spain in a better position for sea explorations.
  • 1488

    Bartolomeu Dias Sails around Africa's Tip

    Bartolomeu Dias Sails around Africa's Tip
    Dias had gone farther than any other explorer before. On his return voyage, he discovered The Cape of Good Hope.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Christopher Columbus Lands At Hispaniola

    Christopher Columbus Lands At Hispaniola
    After Columbus's voyage was financed, he sailed West, intending to reach Asia. Instead, he reached Hispaniola (Dominican Republic/Haiti)
  • 1519

    Cortes Invades the Aztec

    Cortes Invades the Aztec
    Cortez, a conquistador, made his way to the Aztec lands. After finding allies to help defeat the Aztecs, Cortez came to their capital and invaded.
  • 1529

    Pizarro Invades the Inca

    Pizarro Invades the Inca
    Francisco Pizarro was a conquistador sent from Spain to take over the native lands and convert them to Christianity. He and other conquistadors used threats, violence, and other means to suppress the Inca people.
  • 1532

    The Inca Fall Under Pizarro

    The Inca Fall Under Pizarro
    Pizarro and his conquistadors killed anyone who didn't convert to Christianity, and they killed the Inca ruler, Atahualpa. The Inca were weakened by civil war and plague, and any rebels were killed off. So, the Inca eventually fell.
  • Thomas Hobbes Writes "The Leviathan"

    Thomas Hobbes Writes "The Leviathan"
    Thomas Hobbes, an enlightened thinker, wrote about how he felt about people and government in his book, The Leviathan. It talked about how man needed to be ruled because they will naturally go to fighting and, eventually, war.
  • John Locke Writes "The Second Treatise on Government"

    John Locke Writes "The Second Treatise on Government"
    John Locke, another enlightened thinker, wrote his book on man and the government. He thought than mankind was gifted with reason and logic, and these things would guide them to make good decisions, so there shouldn't be a strict government.
  • The United States Declare Independence

    The United States Declare Independence
    The thirteen British colonies (later known as the United States) thought that they were being treated unfairly and wanted to be free of British rule. They declared independence, then the Revolutionary War ensued.
  • France Writes the Declaration of the Rights of Man

    France Writes the Declaration of the Rights of Man
    Inspired by the United States, the people of France wrote The Declaration of the Rights of Man. They wanted to get rid of their monarchy government and create a new one.
  • Haiti Gains Independence

    Haiti Gains Independence
    Black people in Haiti were greatly oppressed and often enslaved, and they wanted equal rights to the Spanish. So, Toussaint L'Ouverture helped lead a rebellion that involved many slave revolts and attacks on the Spanish. They practically decimated the White population of Haiti and rose to the top of the social system, gaining independence for Haiti.
  • Bolivar and His Soldiers Begin Venezuela's Fight for Independence

    Bolivar and His Soldiers Begin Venezuela's Fight for Independence
    When the French took over the Spanish throne, Venezuela was divided on whether to stay loyal to the old Spanish king or become independent. Bolivar fought for independence, joining a rebel group that helped liberate Venezuela.
  • Bolivar's Gran Colombia Gains Independence

    Bolivar's Gran Colombia Gains Independence
    Bolivar made a group of states called Gran Colombia that he was trying to liberate. After winning battles in Carabobo, Equador, and Quito, Gran Colombia had been officially liberated and was free from Spain.
  • Jose de San Martin Frees Peru From Spain

    Jose de San Martin Frees Peru From Spain
    Jose de San Martin joined a rebel group that fought for independence. In order to liberate Peru, he pretended to be sick, but he was really gathering his forces. He first liberated Chile, then he went to attack Peru, and gave them independence. He then became dictator of Peru.
  • Mexico Gains Independence

    Mexico Gains Independence
    Hidalgo y Costilla lead a rebellion that caused millions of oppressed Mexicans to rise up and fight against the Spanish in 1810. Although this rebellion disbanded and their leader was killed, this was the start of the fight for Mexican independence. They gained this in 1821.