Fall 2020 - Ed. Tech. Timeline - Dr. Cheng

Timeline created by EdTechUF2020
  • -500 BCE

    A New Profession is Born: The First Teachers - The Sophists

    A New Profession is Born: The First Teachers - The Sophists
    During the fifth century BCE, the increasing wealth and sophistication in large Greek cities, such as Athens, caused a demand for higher education. Thus, the first educators emerged - the Sophists. The Sophists were professional educators who toured the Greek world providing teachings focused on public speaking skills and the successful conduct of life. The Sophists
  • -440 BCE

    The Socratic Method

    The Socratic Method
    Socrates' most significant contribution to the developing world of education revolved around inquiry. This act of inquiry occurred through conversation guided by a leading question. Socratic Seminars are used in classrooms as a way for students to hold a meaningful discussion, practice critical thinking skills, and listen with intent to others while adding their own thoughts and comments/reactions to their peers.
    Socratic Seminars
  • 1100


    Scholasticism was an intellectual movement within Europe during the 12th and 13th century. During this movement, Pierre Abelard established the basic characteristics with his book "Sic et Non." The book lays out the pros and cons of theological and philosophical propositions. Abelard kept his book objective in order for his students to draw their own conclusions.
  • Jan 1, 1439

    Invention of the Printing Press

    Invention of the Printing Press
    The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg. Before the printing press, text had to be hand lettered. This made accessing print materials very difficult. The printing press mechanized the printing process, which increased the speed and economy by which print materials could be made. This increased access to print materials, which revolutionized learning and literacy across the globe. https://www.britannica.com/technology/printing-press
  • Principles of Instructional Method: Johann Amos Comenius (1592-1670)

    Principles of Instructional Method: Johann Amos Comenius (1592-1670)
    Comenius set principles of instruction reflecting modernized educational standards. Comenius is also renowned for the creation of his visual aid textbook Orbus pictus.
    Read His Biography Here
  • Comenius proposed a system open to all

    Comenius proposed a system open to all
    Comenius suggests and end to education by social status / ability. Proposed a system open to all from K – University. Introduced “Principles of Instructional Method”
  • John Locke's Influence on Future Sensory Educators

    John Locke's Influence on Future Sensory Educators
    British philosopher and researcher John Locke's 1673 essay "Some Thoughts Concerning Education" influenced many “object/sensory” teachers of the 1800s with the notion that children's minds are like blank slates and there is a natural developmental progression to learning. John Locke
  • Pestalozzi's Method

    Pestalozzi's Method
    Johann Pestalozzi simplified the cognition process by giving learners three-fold instruction in the form of elements of numbers(arithmetic) , forms (drawing) and names which led to the development of insight.
  • Lancastrian Method

    Lancastrian Method
    American schools began to adopt centralized management practices, improved instructional media and systematic approaches to instruction. This monitorial system created by Joseph Lancaster, was a practice-centered approach implemented standardized techniques for teaching a large amount of students at one time.
  • First Appearance of Pestalozzianism in the US

    First Appearance of Pestalozzianism in the US
    In 1809, an assistant of Pestalozzi, Joseph N. Neef was brought to Philadelphia by William MacClure. MacClure then opened the first series of schools using Pestalozzi's instructional methods. More details can be found in this article: William Maclure: science, Pestalozzianism and reform in Europe and the United States.
  • Manual of Mutual Instruction by William Russell

    Manual of Mutual Instruction by William Russell
    William Russell strongly favored the Lancasterian System. As a result, he edited a Manual of Mutual Instruction, which was published in 1826 and gave directions on how to apply the Lancasterian System in schools. More information about the educator William Russell can be found here: William Russell (educator) - Wikipedia.
  • Florence Nightingale's Coxcomb

    Florence Nightingale's Coxcomb
    Florence Nightingale and William Farr design a coxcomb to illustrate the effects of the Crimea War to Queen Victoria, this helps establish the use of infographics. Smithsonian Article
  • The Oswego Method

    The Oswego Method
    In 1860, Edward A. Sheldon (1823 - 1897) implemented an object-lesson plan in schools in Oswego, New York. This was a first major attempt by American educators to psychologize instruction. This method originated from Pestalozzian principles but soon assumed a formalism of its own. Unfortunately, many teachers shifted to the extreme that everything should be taught exclusively by this method.Oswego Movement.
  • Tesla coil

    Tesla coil
    In the late 19th century Serbian inventor Nikola Tesla patented the Tesla Coil, which laid the groundwork for today's wireless technology. Without this invention, a modern way of life and today's education technology field would have not been possible. Tesla also pioneered the AC electricity system which is still used today to power up cities worldwide.
  • Visions of the future

    Visions of the future
    I came across this series of French postcards, originally designed for the 1900 World Exhibition in Paris, that sought to depict what the world might look like in 100 years. Some of the images are still pretty fantastical 120 years later, but some of them are uncannily on point. They're available on Wikimedia Commons if you want to browse through them.
  • First School Museum: St Louis, MO

    First School Museum: St Louis, MO
    The first school museum opened in St. Louis, Missouri. The museum had a variety of resources and collections. This museum contained multiple exhibits, slides, fossils, and more.
    Missouri Leading The Change
  • Thomas Edison Suggests Books Will Become Obsolete

    Thomas Edison Suggests Books Will Become Obsolete
    Thomas Edison is quoted saying, "Books will soon be obsolete in the schools ... It is possible to teach every branch of human knowledge with the motion picture." Decades later his proclamation still hasn't come true. Thomas Edison Bio
  • Second School Museum: Reading, PA

    Second School Museum: Reading, PA
    Dr. Levi W. Mengel uses his personal collection of antiquities from the St. Louis World's Fair to create what is to become the Reading Public museum on the 3rd floor of Reading School District's admin building before moving to West Reading.
    RPM site
  • First Montessori School Opened

    First Montessori School Opened
    Maria Montessori opened the Case dei Bambini, or "Children's Houses", in Italy that practiced her educational theories. In a Montessori classroom, the learner choose the learning material they use, and then interact with the material in their own way with the guidance of a teacher. Montessori's method soon spread to the rest of the world: There are still Montessori schools in the US today. More information can be found here: Why Montessori.
  • Educational Radio

    Educational Radio
    During the 1920's, while radio broadcasting was quickly becoming popular, a new educational technology artifact was born - educational radio. "The reach and immediacy of radio provided educators with a new and potentially powerful medium through which to support and modify education."
    Educational Radio
  • Division of Visual Instruction Founded

    Division of Visual Instruction Founded
    In 1923, the Department of Visual Instruction (DVI) was created by the National Education Association. This organization eventually became the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). More information about the history of AECT can be found at AECT In the 20th Century: A Brief History.
  • Video Conferencing

    Video Conferencing
    Though the idea of video conferencing had existed long before, the first instance of a video conference that I could find was initiated between Bell Labs, the President of AT&T, and officials in Washington D.C. in 1927. This technology has exploded in recent years, as all of us Zoomers are now well aware.
  • London's Underground Rail Map

    London's Underground Rail Map
    Harry Beck creates the first draft of what is to be the Underground Electric Railways Company of London's map of all stations and lines. Article
  • Military Training Films

    Military Training Films
    During WWII the use of training films were used widely. Hundreds of training films were produced and were viewed more than four million times. Even though no formal data was collected on their effectiveness, many felt they were a successful training tool. 1943 Military Training Film
  • E-books

    While there is some debate as to the first instance of an electronic book, there is little debate as to the importance of this technology, particularly for those for whom traditional text-based books are not a feasible mode of delivery.
  • Natural Language Processing

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of linguistics, computer science, and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human language, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data. Challenges in natural language processing frequently involve speech recognition, natural language understanding, and natural-language generation.
  • Instructional Television

    Instructional Television
    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) set aside 242 television channels for educational purposes. The primary mission of the stations were to deliver instructional programming as an inexpensive means to satisfy the United States needs for instruction.
  • BF Skinner Teaching Machine

    BF Skinner Teaching Machine
    BF Skinner produced a "teaching machine" that teaches and assesses students, correcting them as they work. It is able to control when the student is able to move to the next lesson through reinforcement for correct answers. Link text
  • Behavioral Objectives: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    Behavioral Objectives: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
    Benjamin Bloom and colleagues published the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives that emphasized learning outcomes within cognitive domains, objectives that could be met through learned behavior, and the hierarchal relationship between desired outcomes.
  • Cloud storage

    Cloud storage
    Cloud storage allows people to store and share files wirelessly via internet. It has become an essential place to store files for personal and work use. Services like Google docs, iCloud and Dropbox have become essential in our lives. It is believed that the cloud was invented by Carl Robnett Licklider in the 1960s.
    History of cloud
  • PLATO is first initiated

    PLATO is first initiated
    PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations) is the first CAI (computer assisted instruction). It was initiated at the University of Illinois. The main objective of PLATO was to make computer based education economically possible. PLATO led to the development of bulletin boards and chats along with leading to the Xerox Star which was the first computer with a user face that was graphical. PLATO
  • Robert F Mager's Learning Objectives and Criterion Referenced Instruction

    Robert F Mager's Learning Objectives and Criterion Referenced Instruction
    Robert F Mager's work on Learning Objectives and Criterion Referenced Instruction (instead of Norm Referenced) still has huge impact on the educational field! Read more about him here!
    [Wikivisually on Robert F. Mager] (https://wikivisually.com/wiki/Robert_F._Mager>
  • "The Conditions of Learning" Robert Gagné

    "The Conditions of Learning" Robert Gagné
    In 1965, Robert Gagné published his book "The Conditions of Learning." He describes five domains of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes, and cognitive strategies. Each require certain conditions in order for them to be learned.
    Conditions of learning
  • Invention of Calculators

    Invention of Calculators
    The invention of calculators in 1967 by Texas Instrument was a significant event in math.The calculator helps math students calculate basic operations while solving more complex problems.
  • Educational Technology

    Educational Technology
    The term "Educational Technology" was created.
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    MECC launches 1971's Oregon Trail which helped teach history via first-person decision making. The game found the way into home computers by 1984 and helped launch the educational game field. Article
  • Invention of the Scantron System

    Invention of the Scantron System
    Michael Sokolski invented the Scantron system to automate grading and feedback and to speed up the production of teaching materials. Link text
  • The First Microcomputer - Altair 8800

    The First Microcomputer - Altair 8800
    MITS sells the first personal Microcomputer, Altair 8800, 1974.
    [Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems] https://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/object/nmah_334396
  • The ADDIE model is developed

    The ADDIE model is developed
    The ADDIE model is an effective process to help build effective learning solutions. Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.
    ADDIE model: Instructional Design
  • Personal Computers (IBM PC - IBM 5150) - 1980s

    Personal Computers (IBM PC - IBM 5150) - 1980s
  • Introduction of Internet

    Introduction of Internet
    The introduction of internet opened the door to distance learning and interactive platforms for instructional design
    A Brief History of Internet
  • Universal Design for Learning

    Universal Design for Learning
    Founded in the 1980's, the Center for Applied Special Technology, or CAST, has sought to marry the principles of Universal Design for Learning with the growing capabilities of educational technology in order to make learning more accessible to all.
  • Experiential Learning Theory

    Experiential Learning Theory
    David Kolb publishes "Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development." Kolb's theory outlines effective learning broken down into four stages: concrete experience leads to reflective observation leads to abstract conceptualization leads to active experimentation.
  • Where in The World is Carmen Sandiego?

    Where in The World is Carmen Sandiego?
    An early CD-Rom, Carmen Sandiego made learning Geography fun through its sleuth-style gameplay coupled with questions about Geography
  • University of Phoenix Launches 1st Online Bachelors & Masters

    University of Phoenix Launches 1st Online Bachelors & Masters
    In 1989 the University of Phoenix became the first institution to launch a fully online collegiate institution that offered both bachelors and masters degrees. History of Online Schooling
  • Sim City

    Sim City
    A city-building simulation that teaches its players multiple facets of building/managing a city, from politics to funding to infrastructure to zoning.
  • Growing Interests in Constructivism

    Growing Interests in Constructivism
    Interests in Constructivism grew. Constructivism focus on authentic learning on real-world situations, collaborations of learners and learner's ownership of their learning
    simplypsychology on constructivism
  • Methodist Ladies’ College introduces the 1:1 laptop program

    Methodist Ladies’ College introduces the 1:1 laptop program
    Methodist Ladies’ College in Melbourne, Australia becomes the first school in the world to introduce the one to one laptop program. Fifth year students at the school were all using a Toshiba laptops at home and at school to support their construction of knowledge.
    First one to one laptop program
  • Search Engines - 1990s

    Search Engines - 1990s
  • UF Invents High-Fidelity Patient Simulator

    UF Invents High-Fidelity Patient Simulator
    From 1986-1994, a team at the University of Florida created a high-fidelity patient simulator, nicknamed Stan, to assist in medical education training at UF's College of Medicine. They subsequently patented and sold it through the METI corporation to other schools and hospitals around the world.
  • Development of First Web Browser

    Development of First Web Browser
    In 1993, the creation of Mosaic lead to a steady increase of web usage. This web browser allowed users to save files, view their web history, and watch video clips. Mosaic gained popularity amongst its users for it's accessibility and user-friendly interface.
  • Higher Education Distance Learning Opportunities

    Higher Education Distance Learning Opportunities
    With interest rising in the internet higher education institutions' enrollment in distance learning has doubled in the United States. 78% of 4 year institutions offered distance learning courses by the 1997-1998 school year. Recent Distance Learning Statistics
  • Release of consumer WIFI

    Release of consumer WIFI
    WIFI was first release for consume use in 1997. At the same time standard for WLAN communication were established. WIFI uses electromagnetic waves to communicate. It runs on two frequencies 2.4Ghz and 5Ghz. Today, WIFI is continuing to improve and becoming easier to install and manage.
  • Learning Management Systems First Introduced

    Learning Management Systems First Introduced
    A learning management systems for software applications were first introduced in the late 1990s. LMS is a dashboard or web-based platform used by instructors and learners to disseminate course material, carry on discussions, upload work, and evaluate submissions. An example of a LMS is Canvas.
  • Publication of the Original ISTE Standards for Students

    Publication of the Original ISTE Standards for Students
    ISTE Standards for Students were published in 1998 to provide educators and learners with objectives for students regarding technology education. The standards have gone through 2 revisions. They describe the 1998 version as "learning to use technology, the 2007 version as "using technology to learn", and the 2016 version as "transformative learning with technology". https://www.iste.org/standards/for-students
  • Whyville

    An early online learning simulator, students were tasked with solving educational challenges. Each challenge completed rewards the player with in-game currency which can be spent on customizing their in-game avatar.
  • MIT OpenCourseWare

    MIT OpenCourseWare
    MIT OpenCourseWare: MIT announced its (OperCourseWare)[https://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm] initiative, which started the Open Educational Recourses movement. Since then, many universities have started their own websites of open course materials.
  • Creative Commons Founded

    Creative Commons Founded
    (Creative Commons)[https://creativecommons.org/] was founded, which provided licenses that would allow educators to share resources in an open and simple manner.
  • Classroom Instruction that Works

    Classroom Instruction that Works
    Robert Marzano published his book that detailed instructional strategies that would improve student performance. He advocated for the gamification of education. Link text
  • Rise of Internet in Schools

    Rise of Internet in Schools
    Internet use in schools rose significantly, so that by 2002 over 99% schools had internet.
  • Web 2.0

    Web 2.0
    In 2004, Web 2.0 technologies paved the way towards internet connectivity and collaboration. Some common examples of Web 2.0 tools include Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube. In education, many instructors use YouTube to share ideas and deliver instruction.
  • Podcasts

    Podcasts, which are digital audio files on the internet, were created in 2004 and have steadily gained in popularity. In 2019, reportedly 165 million people had listened to at least one podcast.
  • Arduino project was started

    Arduino project was started
    An Arduino is a programmable microcontroller. They can be programmed with a variety of languages and are relatively low cost. They are used often in Makerspaces.

  • YouTube Launches

    YouTube Launches
    The video platform has gained significant popularity for a massive variety of videos but is also used widely as an educational tool. People use YouTube to teach themselves everything from how to fix a part on their car to how to perform a surgical skill on a patient.
  • E-Readers - 2006

    E-Readers - 2006
  • Google docs

    Google docs
    Google Docs is a word processor included as part of a free, web-based Google Docs suite offered by Google within its Google Drive service. Google Docs is available as a web application, mobile app for Android, iOS, Windows, BlackBerry, and as a desktop application on Google's ChromeOS. The app is compatible with Microsoft Office file formats.
  • Emergence of Smartphones

    Emergence of Smartphones
    The introduction of the iPhone creates a boon in touch-screen cellular phone technology with computing processing capabilities that mimic larger computers. With these handheld, Internet-capable devices in hand, instructional designers and educational programs move into the market of developing mobile learning that builds off established principles of digital distance learning already growing exponentially.
  • OER Commons Founded

    OER Commons Founded
    (OER Commons)[https://www.oercommons.org/] is a library that allowed educators and learners to search for a variety of open educational recourses, including open textbooks and courses. It is making education a lot more accessible and affordable.
  • Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)
    The concept of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) was created in 2008 by Stephen Downes and George Siemens through a course they designed at the University of Manitoba. The intention was to increase student interaction through the use of online tools. Soon Stanford, MIT and others followed suit.
    MOOCs History
  • Use of e-portfolios

    Use of e-portfolios
    In 2008, people began e-portfolios began to gain popularity amongst internet users. E-portfolios were initially designed as a means for individuals to showcase their professional achievements. Unfortunately, e-portfolios lost public attention due to usability issues.
  • H1N1 Virus Puts eLearning in Spotlight

    H1N1 Virus Puts eLearning in Spotlight
    The U.S. Department of Education released recommendations for steps districts can take to prepare for possible long-term closures prompted by the H1N1 virus. Most focused on high-tech tactics. Federal officials urged school leaders to look into digital resources, webinar support, phone conferencing, online courses, and virtual classrooms as possible ways of delivering education. Swine Flu
  • Virtual Reality in Education

    Virtual Reality in Education
    In the 2010s, as the technology for virtual reality developed, its use toward education was explored. (ClassVR)[https://www.classvr.com/] is one of the companies that offers virtual reality experience in the classroom. The Games Research Lab at Columbia University maintains a (Virtual Reality for Education)[http://virtualrealityforeducation.com/] website that provides some Virtual Reality educational resources and information about the latest research on this topic.
  • MOOCs (Massive open online courses) - 2011

    MOOCs (Massive open online courses) - 2011
  • Online collaborative learning

    Online collaborative learning
    Linda Harasim, professor at the School of Communication at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, developed online collaborative learning theory (OCL) in 2012 from a theory originally called computer-mediated communication (CMC), or networked learning
  • Google Classroom

    Google Classroom
    Google Classroom was launched by Google on August 12, 2014. It was started as a way to make it easier for teachers to share information, files, and assignments with students. Google Classroom incorporates other features from Google such as Docs, Sheets, Slides, Calendar and Gmail. Since its initial launch, Google Classroom has helped deliver online learning to schools and institutions around the world.
  • Learner Experience Design (LXD)

    Learner Experience Design (LXD)
    This phrase was first coined in 2015 by Connie Malamed. LXD aims to achieve learner outcomes in a human-centered and goal-oriented manner. It evolves from the combined efforts of learner experience and instructional design. LXD
  • Artificial Intelligence and Education

    Artificial Intelligence and Education
    Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) through methods such as machine learning, deep learning, and neural networks, enable educational technology companies such as Pearson to develop educational applications driven by AI that claim to adapt personally to the learner's needs automatically as underlying algorithms adapt to the learner's progress. AI education grows rapidly in China.
  • Covid-19 and Mass Migration to Online Education

    Covid-19 and Mass Migration to Online Education
    The Covid-19 pandemic causes mass school closures worldwide forcing over 1.2 billion children out of formal educational settings. Schools scramble to implement solutions through online learning both synchronously, typically through video-conferencing applications such as Zoom, or asynchronously, through LMS software such as Canvas. Instructional designers are in more demand than ever.