German Foreign Policy - 1934-1939

Timeline created by Goy0001
In History
  • Polish-German Non-Aggression Pact

    Poland was far more powerful militarily in 1934 and was fully aware that Germany desired to regain territories granted to Poland in the Treaty of Versailles. Poland with its alliance with France however, did not fear German aggression. Their main worry was the communist Soviet Union. So a Non-aggression pact was formed between France and Germany.
    It included:
    -Recognition by Germany of Poland’s borders
    -Better diplomatic relations to discuss disputes
    -Increased trade between the two states
  • Polish-German Non-Aggression Pact Reactions

    For Germany, this treaty meant that it did not have to fear Polish military intervention, even when rearmament began. In addition it clearly weakened the alliance between Poland and France. It also helped to stop Soviet aggression.
    International Response: France
    France was outraged, with the alliance between Poland and France weakening. France understood that Poland could do anything regarding their interests, it could not do much. Although it did push France towards the Soviet Union. For help
  • Polish-German Non-Aggression Pact Reactions Part 2

    International Response: Soviet Union
    The Non-Aggression pact ended if any, cooperation between Germany and the Soviet Union through the Rapallo Treaty from 1922. This was largely due to Poland now being able to either place troops or even attack the Soviets head on, this ended any type of cooperation with Germany. The soviets reaction was to join the League of Nations in 1934. It was now relying on collective security to keep its empire safe. This was not ideal as most countries feared communism
  • Attempted annexation of Austria

    A goal of many in Austria and Germany after the First World War was to unite the two countries. This was a step towards creating a larger Germany. In June 1934, Hitler met Mussolini and tried to convince him that Austria should become a satellite state under Germany however, with Mussolini denying a month later Hitler orders a coup. This however, fails but in this attempt Austria’s head of state, Chancellor Engelburt Dolfuss, was assinated. Mussolini orders troops to station on the border.
  • Attempted annexation of Austria Part 2

    The failed annexation was a set back for Hitler, but the reaction of German is impossible to know as most media was controlled by the Nazi Party, it did however, become clear that Germany was weak in 1934 and could not affect international affairs to its liking.
  • Saar plebiscite

    The Saar was an iron and cola rich region of Germany that bordered France. It was placed under the administration of the League of Nations after the First World War and France was allowed to operate and prosper from its coal mines, to compensate for the destroyed coal mines by Germany in World War One. In1935 a Saar plebiscite was held by the League of Nations, in which residents of the Saar could vote to rejoin Germany, remain under League of Nations administration or merge with France.
  • Saar Plebiscite - Results and Influence

    Over 90 Percent of voters choosing to rejoin Germany. This was a celebrated win in Germany and Hitler seemed to believe that this indicated support for his policies and government.
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty

    Both Germany and Britain had been busy trying to break the unity of Stresa. They did this through the Anglo-German Naval Treaty, which completely contradicted the declaration at Stresa. Britain believed that it had achieved diplomatic victory over Germany as the Treaty would limit Germany to only 35 percent of the size of British Navy. This would mean that Germany would not be able to take control by the mean of water.
  • Anglo-German Naval Treaty Part 2

    The power of the Britain Navy was not the only advantage, Germany would use its precious resources to create a Navy that would in the end be useless against Britain. However, the treaty in context to Britain diplomacy worked to treat Germany as state with legitimate concerns, yet limit its power so it could not challenge Britain. Italy and France, however, believed that German rearmament was encouraged and the Treaty of Versailles was broken. The Stresa front being damaged even more.
  • Remilitarisation of the Rhineland

    The Rhineland was a large strip of German territory which was demilitarised at the end of World War One. This was seen as dangerous by many Germans as France could invade Germany with no resistance from Germany. However, with Hitler watching the Abyssinian Crisis and its results, he acted in March of 1936 to remilitarise Rhineland. The troops marched into Rhineland with light arms to reassure France that this was not a invasion. This was seen as a victory for the Nazi Party and its government.
  • Remilitarisation of the Rhineland - International Response

    France did not intervene mainly because it’s military was only ordered to stop unprovoked attack by the Germans . Also it had no plans on going to war for a piece land that technically was German territory.
    Britain did not want to go to war over Rhineland either, ignoring advancements made by the Germans. Military spending in Britain did seem to increase however, many people also thought of Germany as a bulwark again communism.
    For Germany this was one of many small victories,
  • Remilitarisation of the Rhineland - International Response Part 2

    Hitler was now sure that he could get away with taking over territories slowly as no power was ready to go to war over them.
  • Agreements and Pacts (Rome-Berlin Axis and Anti-Comintern Pact)

    Rome-Berlin Axis was anew relationship between Germany and Italy. It indicated the desire or dream of this new diplomatic alignment that world affairs be determined by the government of Italy and Germany, not Britain and France. This was a clear announcement that Britain and France were no longer more important than Germany and Italy; they were all of the same importance.
  • Agreements and Pacts (Rome-Berlin Axis and Anti-Comintern Pact)

    Anti-Comintern Pact was agreed between Germany and Japan to oppose the Soviet-sponsored organisation Communist International. This organisation included groups in Spain that were fighting German-sponsored Nationalists and the Chinese communist party that fought Japan. This pact meant that neither country was isolated and that they would co-operate in international affairs. The fact that these governments opposed communism did not alarm any other country. Italy joined in November 1937.
  • Anschluss with Austria

    After the failed attempt in 1934, Germany boycotted Austrian goods and raw material, weakening the economy. Italy had no problem now with the annexation of Austria and Germany. Austria tried to negotiate with Germany by releasing the Nazi party member who were jailed and appointing a Nazi member as the minister of public security. A plebiscite was made to vote and the result being 99 percent approving of the annexation. Austria’s chancellor also quitting to stop bloodshed.
  • Anschluss with Austria - International Response

    Both Britain and France do nothing to object other than a speech by the British Prime minister. This was largely due to both countries thinking that Germany would be a large force against the growth of Communism.
    The Soviet Union made no effort to stop Germany as they were in the middle of a Purge and had no plans to try and stop matters linking with Germany.
    This shows that most countries were following the appeasement policy; allowing Hitler to take what he wanted in hope he would stop.
  • The Sudeten Crisis

    With the annexation or Austria many Germans in Czechoslovakia believed that it should also be included in the expanding Germany. The Nazi Party exploited the Sudetenland German Party which demanded an autonomy for the Sudetenland area of Czechoslovakia. Konrad Henlein, head of the party met Hitler to make demand for the government. The government was willing to give more rights to Germans but not full control over the government. The government showed fight to stop German expansion.
  • The Sudeten Crisis - International Response

    France has an alliance with Czechoslovakia however, with its main focus on its Maginot line it could not intervene militarily. France asks Britain to intervene.
    Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia had a mutual defence treaty, they pledged if France were to help intervene they would do the same. However, with France not intervening neither does the Soviet Union.
    Britain same as France did not want to go to war over Czechoslovakia and did not intervene as its military was not at its full strength.