Iria Fernández_G&H_4ºH

Timeline created by Iria Fernández
In History
  • Period:

    Modern History

    This refers to the history that follows after the Middle Ages. It goess from about 1500 to the present. It can be divided into periods:
    - Early modern period (from around 1500 and 1815)
    - Late modern period (from 1750–1815 to 1945)
    - Contemporary history (from 1945 to the present).
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    Enclosure Acts

    The Enclosure Acts were made and approved due to the rise in grain prices and to establish a new land ownership structure. This consisted in removing the open field system (subsistene farming done by peasants in common land and shared pastures) and replaced it with enclosed properties instead, which were privately owned. This had many consequences, some positive, for example the improvement in farming techniques and some negative, like poor farmers having to sell their land.
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    First industrial revolution

    This Revolution was triggered by interconnected changes (parallel revolutions) that were started by Great Britain. These were agricultural, demographic, transport, technologycal, trade and financial revolutions.
  • James Watt’s steam engine

    James Watt’s steam engine
    A machine that burnt coal to produce movement was invented. It worked by burning it to boil water, which would produce steam, therefore pressure, that was used for creating continuous movement and was transferred to mutiple types of machinery, such as the locomotive or ships.
  • Estates-General meeting

    Estates-General meeting
    The Estates-General were an assembly that represented the social states of France at the time: nobility, clergy, and Third state (peasants and the burgeoisie). It was an advisory body to the king. They had a meeting to try to solve the economical chrisis the monarchy was going through. The Third State wanted to vote by person and the nobility and clergy, by state, so the Third state was kicked out (accompanied by 2 nobles and 198 members of the church that decided to join them).
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The representants of the Third state were unhappy because the king (Louis XVI) closed the doors so they couldn't enter to the National Assembly meeting. They went to an empty room (the royal tennis court) and proclaimed themselves the National Assembly, which they thought represented the people better. They decided they were going to draft a new Constitution.
  • Great Fear

    Great Fear
    The peasants started to burn the hauses of the nobles and killing them and their families. This soon spread all around France. These actions caused terror among the privileged people, thus the name of this event. It occoured during the summer.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    It was created and approved during the Constitutional Monarchy. Feudalism was abolished by approving it, because it had liberal ideas that were opposed to the social model of the Feudalism.
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    French Revolution

    The French revolution occoured in France from 1789 to 1799. The causes of this were both long term (cultural, political, social and economical) and short term (certain events that led from one to another). It was influenced by the american Constitution and the Enlightenment.
    It created worldwide known symbols, like this song which is a fragment from the musical "Les Miserables" where the citicens were advocating for their rights:
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    Contemporary history

    This period of time goes from the French Revolution (or the US Declaration of independence) to the present. This two events were so important that they marked the start of a new epoque. Thanks to them, a lot of things have changed in society, like for example the Declaration of Human Rights was made and Constitution is considered a fundamental law.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    It was the was the first phase of the Revolution. The National Constituent Assembly, formed by moderate bourgeoisie, negotiated with the king and privileged classes how to establish a parliamentary monarchy in France.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The Bastille was a castle
    used as a state prison by the kings of
    France. There was where they kept the gunpowder and a lot of weapons, so the people of the Third Stante freed the (7) prisoners and took the resources to use them for the Revolution.
  • Women's march on Versailles

    Women's march on Versailles
    From the markets of Paris, thousands of women marched to
    Versailles. They were angry because of the high prices of food, specially bread. The women forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace in Paris because they wanted him to be closer to the people.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    It was the first written constitution in France, drafted by the National Assembly during the French revolution. It stated that all men were “born and remain free and equal in rights” and it promised to grant the right to “liberty, property, security and resistence to oppression”. It was created to replace the Absolute monarchy after the collapse of the ancient Régime.
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    Social Republic

    Driven by: Radical bourgeoisie
    Goals: Republican democratic liberal government
    - Republic
    - Democratic and equal society: universal male
    suffrage, social laws
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    Girondin Convention

    National Convention: new assembly elected by universal male suffrage. Execution of Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette.
    There was a formation of an absolutist coalition in Europe to fight against revolutionaries, and counter-revolutionary revolts in the countryside, as well as royalist plots by the privileged classes.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    The legislative Assembly declared war to Austria
    and Prussia during the time of the constitutional monarchy.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The sans-culottes stormed Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the
    royal family, declaring France as a republic, which would be ruled by Girondists (moderate bourgeoisie) from 1792 to 1793, and the Jacobins (most radical sector) from 1793 to 1794.
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    Jacobin Convention

    They drafted the 1793 constitution: republican, popular sovereignty (universal male suffrage), social equality
    Executive power rested on the Committee of Public Safety, leaded by Robespierre. Absolute monarchies were invaded with a mass levy to increase army forces. There were counter-revolutionary revolts and plots Imposition of the Reign of Terror, executions
    under the Law of suspects.
    Social laws to satisfy sans-culottes: Law of the Maximum, compulsory education....
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    Reign of Terror

    a period of the French Revolution when, following the creation of the First French Republic, a series of massacres and numerous public executions took place in response to revolutionary fervour, anticlerical sentiment, and spurious accusations of treason by Maximilien Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety. It was justified by the Law of Suspects.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Louis XVI was executed (using the guillotine) because they acused him of high treason. It was a major event of the French Revolution, because by killing him, a state of violent, amoral chaos had started in France. This happened during the Girondin Convention.
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    Conservative Republic

    It was the third and last phase of the French Revolution. It was driven by the moderate bourgeoisie, and its main goal was to achieve Moderate liberalism.
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    The Consulate

    Napoleon was proclaimed consul. He ruled in an autocratic and authoritarian way. His objectives were: avoiding the political instability of the Revolution, the consolidation of some of the
    revolutionary principles, and an economic recovery through a
    government that represented the interests of the bourgeoisie.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte organised
    a coup, which was supported by a large part of the
    bourgeoisie. This was a very important event, because he started and authoritarian rule, therefore the French Revolution was over.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    This constitution was made during Napoleon's Consulate. Its main goal was to abolish the separation of powers and declaration of rights. The people had very limited liberties and public opinion was censured.States were now organized in departments and run by prefects chosen by Napoleon.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope, but when he was putting the crown on the emperor, Napoleon took it and put it himself. This symbolically showed that he would not allow Rome to control him or submit to any power other than himself. This was a show of strength to reassure his allies and to avoid any potential uprisingsof the citicens because he had proclaimed himself the highest authority in France.
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    Napoleonic Empire

    Napoleon was crowned emperor
    by the Pope in 1804and began his conquest of Europe, defeating most of the European monarchies, thanks to his new meilitary tactics and large army. At the Napoleonic empire's zenith (1811), he ruled from Spain to Germany.
  • Invasion of Spain+ Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain+ Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    Napoleon made his brother Joseph the king of Spain. There, he was extremely unpopular, and his arrival made a Spanish revolt spark against the french ruler.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    France's imperial armies lost the battle of Waterloo (1815) to
    Great Britain and Prussia: Napoleon was finally defeated.
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    Restoration of Absolutism

    The Restoration was a movement that strived to go back to having absolute monachies ruling Europe. Its main goals besides from this one were:
    - Denial of national sovereignty
    - Balance of power
    - Right of intervention
    The countries who participated on it were Russia, Prussia, Austria and Great Britain. It ended because it was too late for going back, the people had strong nationalist feelings and wanted freedom, so they revolted.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greece was a part of the Ottoman Empire for
    centuries, but they had to pay high taxes, they were excluded from state administration jobs, and they were dominated by people with different religion and culture than theirs.
    In 1822, the greeks declared independence (not recognized by the Turks). Later, in 1827, they won thanks to French and British military intervention help. In 1830 the Ottomans finally recognized Greece's independence.
  • Stephenson’s Steam locomotive

    Stephenson’s Steam locomotive
    This invention was part of the transport revolution, and it was so remarcable because it could transport more passengers and goods in less time and with a lower cost. It worked by constantly burning coal, using the steam engine (invented in 1669 by James Watt).
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    Insurrections spread all over Europe, with a significant popular support and a revolutionary wave took place. Some of the relolutions were succesful, like in France, whose absolutist monarch (Charles X) was replaced by a constitutional one and some were unsuccesful, like in Poland, were a revolt broke out against the autocratic Russian rule but was harshly suppressed and went back to absolutism.
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    The Age of the Revolutions

    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the
    liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of
    some European peoples. Insurrections
    spread all over Europe, with a significant popular support. The two main waves were the one of 1830 and the one of 1848.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    The Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed by the Kingdom of Holland, that were protestants and absolutists, and Belgium, who werw catholics and liberals. Belgium wanted to be its own coutry. There was an armed conflict from 1830 to 1839 after Belgium’s declaration of independence. Later, in 1839: Recognition of
    independence. Belgium was a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
  • Zollverein

    In 1834, Prussia created a customs union named Zollverein. It made it free to trade between the borders of the Germanic Confederation, but not with and Austria.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    Another revolutionary wave, The Spring of Nations, took place. The people lived under the rule of an empire (Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy), but they had strong nationalist feelings and they freed themselves from the control of absolutist empires.
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    French Second Republic

    In France, Charles X, who was an absolute monarch, was overthrown and substituted by the constitutional monarch Louis Philippe I, also known as the “Citizen King”.
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    Italian Unification process

    In 1859, the Kingdom of Piedmont, which was ruled by the liberal
    monarchy of Savoy with Cavour as Prime Minister,
    started the unification.
    They declared the war on Austria and annexed Lombardy
    Popular uprising lead by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy.
    In 1861: Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of
    Italy. In 1866, Austria left Venetia, in 1870, The Papal states were
    annexed and Rome became the capital.
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    German Unification process

    Germany was divided into 36 states, where Prussia and Austria were competing for power.
    In 1834, Prussia created Zollverein. In 1848, the 1st freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, but he refused it. Later, in 1861, new political figures appeared in Prussia: King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor. They declared wars on Denmark, Austria and France. 1871- Proclamation of the Second German
  • Congress of Vienna+ Holly Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna+ Holly Alliance Treaty
    The Congress of Vienna was a meeting that occoured at the end of the Napoleonic Empire, where Austria, Prussia Russia, Great Britain ( the winners) and France (the losers) met. Their main goals were to stop the spread of liberal ideas and Restore absolutism. One fo the consecuences of it, along the change of borders of Europe wa the Holly Alliance Trinity (Russia, Prussia and Austria). They stated that their absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution.