CAUSES OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE
THE INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICAThe independence of Latin America was the historical process of the rebellion of its inhabitants against Spanish colonial rule and the formation of independent national states.
Boards in 1809. Some of them - especially the first that of Quito - were repressed by fire and blood by the Spanish authorities
THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDSJoseph Bonaparte and the colonial authorities appointed by the Spanish king, who no longer had any power.
Quito was to be the first in the history of Spanish America to proclaim, on August 10, 1809, a government of its own, not appointed by the Crown.
FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCEThe Spanish authorities fiercely repressed the first of the cities to form a Sovereign Junta. They tried to prevent the contagion. The viceroys of Lima and Bogota immediately sent troops with the order to besiege Quito and not allow «a grain of salt» to enter.
300 patriots and citizens, which shook entire America.
In the beginning, the Juntas were not independent: they were called interim depositaries of the sovereignty until the legitimate king returned.
INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICAAdmirable Campaign, cities that gave him the title of "Liberator", united forever to his first name. To quell the independence movement, Fernando VII ordered to organize the so-called "Peacekeeping expedition" which, under the command of Marshal Pablo Morillo, sailed from Cádiz in 1815. It was the greatest force that would leave Spain in the course of the war: 65 main ships, 18 of battle, a ship of the line of 74 guns, 15,000 men, accouterments, and provisions.
MEXICAN INDEPENDENCEThe priest Miguel Hidalgo was placed in front of the Indians and peasants and launched, as we saw, the «cry of independence» in the town of Dolores. Guadalajara and executed by the realistic authorities in 1811. The command was taken by another priest, José Maria Morelos, who led the second stage of the revolution . He introduced a liberal state and agrarian reform. But he had him shot in 1815.
ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAYThe first Junta de Buenos Aires organized three military campaigns to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful.
In the Banda Oriental, the rural population rose against the Spanish authorities in Montevideo. Colonel José Artigas commanded the revolutionary troops who defeated the royalists at the Battle of Las Piedras and besieged the walled Montevideo, where the viceregal government had moved.
NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELAMorillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817, Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818. However, later, Morillo counterattacked and defeated Bolivar in the valley of Aragua. Then Bolívar crossed the Andes and defeated the royalists in the battle of Pantano de Vargas. which sealed the independence of New Granada.
INDEPENDENCE OF CHILESan Martin was not discouraged and
decided to continue with his plans, only now he first had to liberate Chile. For that he spent years making weapons, bullets and all kinds of equipment, and organizing the Army of the Andes. The crossing was epic, but, as they had planned, the six columns met less than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although it suffered a serious defeat in Cancha Rayada (19-03-1818), it triumphed in the decisive battle of Maipú assuring the independence of Chile.
PERUTogether with O'Higgins, and with 200,000 pesos that he obtained from Buenos Aires, San Martín managed to buy a naval squadron to attack the Spaniards in Peru by sea. San Martin sailed from Valparaíso (20-08-1820) with a fleet of eight warships and 16 transport ships, and 4,500 men from the armies of the Andes and Chile. It disembarked in Pisco (8-09-1820), and forced the realistic army to retreat towards the mountain range.
BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCEWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil and later promoted a legal reform by declaring Brazil as the territorial base of the «Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve». Thus, Rio de Janeiro becomes the seat of an absolute monarchy as well as those of Europe, and no longer a colony. In 1821, Juan VI returned to Portugal, leaving his son
Pedro de Braganza as governor of Brazil, but the following year he proclaimed himself emperor of Brazil.
INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADORLet us remember how the independence of
Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the
arrival of the patriot army commanded by
Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in
Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated
the independence of the Great Colombia.
Let us remember, also, that Bolivar defeated
the royalist pastures in the battle of
Bomboná, and entered triumphant Quito (16-06-1822) and, later, he waited for
the president of Peru, General José de San Martín, to discuss the strategy .
SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVARIn their meetings in Guayaquil , Bolivar, liberator, and president of Gran Colombia, and San Martin, protector of Peru, talked about what was missing to complete the freedom of America: the defeat of the last realistic bastion in Peru. Surprisingly, San Martin gave Bolivar the initiative of the war completely. He returned to Lima, resigned from the government of Peru , and returned to his home in Mendoza, Argentina .
END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCEIn 1823, Bolívar was authorized
by the Congress of the Gran
Colombia to take command of
an expedition to Peru. In
September of that year, he
arrived in Lima and met with
Sucre and the Peruvian leaders
to plan the attack. Bolivar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army at the Battle
of Junín (6-08-1824).
HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGOFrançois Dominique Toussaint-Louverture took charge of a slave revolt on the French side of the island of Hispaniola and led it between 1793 and 1802.
France:In 1803, Jean Jacques Dessalines finally defeated the French troops and, in 1804, declared the independence of Haiti. It was, thus, the second independent country in America, in this case, led by blacks.
In 1822, Haitian troops subdued the eastern part of the island of Hispaniola, which would regain its independence from Haiti in 1844.
THE CASE OF PUERTO RICO70% ( 52 palabras / 59 )
Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and Spain. After the defeat of this, the island of Puerto Rico happens to be administered by EE. UU and is currently an associated free state of that country.
INDEPENDENCE OF CUBACuba. Martí dies in one of the combat actions, but the revolutionary army continues to fight. The USA does not want to lose the possibility of taking over the largest island of the Antilles and, in
The intervention of EE. UU precipitated the Spanish defeat and Cuba proclaimed its independence in 1899, although it suffered the American occupation
CENTRAL AMERICAGuatemala with its provinces declared its independence from the Spanish Crown and, shortly after, annexed Mexico to defend itself better from Spain.
This led to a civil war , in which Guatemala could not prevail. England invaded Nicaragua but was rejected, although it remained with the enclave of Belize.
Of this one separated in 1904, by the direct action of EE. UU, to control the Panama Canal promoted the formation of a separate republic.