Haiti IndependenceIn 1804, declared the independence of Haiti. It was, thus, the
second independent country in America, in this case, led by blacks.
THE INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICAIt began with the proclamation of Sovereign
Boards in 1809. Some of them - especially the first that of Quito.
THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDSQuito was to be the first in the history of
Spanish America to proclaim, on August 10, 1809, a government of its own,
not appointed by the Crown. Soon they would proclaim their meetings,
immediately, throughout 1810, Caracas (19/04), Buenos Aires (25/05),
Bogota (20/07), and Santiago de Chile (18/08).
Republic of ParaguayThe first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-05-1810) organized three military campaigns
to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful.
However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion (14-05-1811), and
the resulting government-held independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay
FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCEOn August 2, 1810, they murdered
300 patriots and citizens, which shook entire America.
In the beginning, the Juntas were not independent: they were called interim
depositaries of the sovereignty until the legitimate king returned. But the reaction of the Spaniards led to
the polarization of the positions
and the creole elites multiplied,
INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICASimón Bolívar -Member
of the Caraqueña boards of
1811- was named new military
leader, and in 1813 he liberated Mérida and Caracas in the so-called
Admirable Campaign, cities that gave him the title of "Liberator"
BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCEWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and
later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base
of the "Empire of Brazil.
NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELAMorillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818.
INDEPENDENCE OF CHILEThe
crossing was epic, but, as they had
planned, the six columns met less
than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although it suffered a serious
defeat in Cancha Rayada (19-03-1818), it triumphed in the decisive battle
of Maipú (5-04-1818), assuring the independence of Chile.
Guetemala IndependenceGuatemala with its provinces (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence
from the Spanish Crown (15-09-1821)
INDEPENDENCE OF PERUSan Martin declared
independence (28-07-1821) and was appointed Protector of Peru with full civil
and military authority.
Ecuador IndependenceAntonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in
Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated
the independence of the Great Colombia.
Let us remember, also, that Bolivar defeated
the royalist pastures in the battle of
Bomboná, and entered triumphant Quito (16-06-1822)
San Martin and BOLIVARIn their meetings in Guayaquil (26 and 27- 07-1822), Bolivar, liberator, and
president of Gran Colombia, and San Martin, protector of Peru, talked about what
was missing to complete the freedom of America
END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCEBolivar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army at the Battle
of Junín (6-08-1824).
Four months later, while Bolivar had gone to Lima to raise more money and
receive a new contingent of troops, Sucre was forced to give battle and destroyed
the last bastion of the Spanish army at the battle of Ayacucho (9-12-1824) ,
which put an end to Spanish rule in South America.
INDEPENDENCE OF URUGUAYLa República Oriental del Uruguay, harta de sus desengaños con el centralismo de Buenos Aires, y después de la Guerra con Brasil (1825-1828),
establecerse como entidad independiente en 1828.
Mexican IndependenceAntonio Lopez de Santa Anna was proclaimed
president of the Republic in 1833 Spain only recognized Mexican
independence in 1839.
Dominican Republic IndependenceIn 1822, Haitian troops subdued the eastern part of the island of Hispaniola,
which would regain its independence from Haiti in 1844. But what will be
called the Dominican Republic will not achieve independence from Spain
until 1865, after a war that left the country devastated.
THE CASE OF PUERTO RICOOn September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against
Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico
continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and
Cuba IndependenceThe intervention of EE. UU precipitated the Spanish
defeat and Cuba proclaimed its independence in 1899, although it suffered
the American occupation.
Republic of PanamáPanama belonged to the Viceroyalty of New Granada and, therefore became independent along with Colombia. Of this one separated in 1904,
by the direct action of EE. UU, to control the Panama Canal promoted the
formation of a separate republic.