LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE AND SOUTH AMERICA

Timeline created by BacuilimaN9I
In History
  • UNITED STATES INDEPENDENCE

    The War of Independence of the United States was a warlike conflict that pitted the original Thirteen British Colonies in North America against the Kingdom of Great Britain. It occurred between 1775 and 1783, ending with the British defeat at the Battle of Yorktown and the signing of the Treaty of Paris. During the war, France aided the American revolutionaries with ground troops commanded by Rochambeau and the Marquis de La Fayette and by fleets under the command of sailors.
  • HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO

    François Dominique Toussaint-Louverture took charge of a slave revolt on
    the French side of the island of Hispaniola and led it between 1793 and 1802.
    He faced Spanish, English, and French, until his capture, exile, and death in
    France. In 1803, Jean Jacques Dessalines finally defeated the French
    troops and, in 1804, declared the independence of Haiti. It was, thus, the
    second independent country in America, in this case, led by blacks.
  • CAUSES OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCE

    In the independence of Latin America, as in any complex process, many
    causes can be distinguished, among them:
    Economic.
    Social
    Ideological.
    Influence of US independence and the French Revolution.
    Napoleon names king of Spain
  • THE INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    The independence of Latin America was the historical process of the
    rebellion of its inhabitants against Spanish colonial rule and the formation of
    independent national states. It began with the proclamation of Sovereign
    Boards in 1809.
  • ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAY

    The first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-051810) organized three military campaigns
    to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful.
    However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion (14-05-1811), and
    the resulting government-held independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay
    was created.
  • ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAY

    The first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-051810) organized three military campaigns
    to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful.
    However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion (14-05-1811), and
    the resulting government-held independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay
    was created.
  • THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDS

    When proclaiming the Sovereign Boards, the
    South American Creoles held three theses:
    The rejection of Napoleon's claims to
    America, the loyalty to Ferdinand VII and,
    most importantly, the illegitimacy of both
    Joseph Bonaparte and the colonial
    authorities appointed by the Spanish king,
    who no longer had any power.
    Quito was to be the first in the history of
    Spanish America to proclaim, on August 10, 1809, a government of its own,
    not appointed by the Crown.
  • FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCE

    The Spanish authorities fiercely repressed the first of the cities to form a
    Sovereign Junta. They tried to prevent the contagion. The viceroys of Lima
    and Bogota immediately sent troops with the order to besiege Quito and not
    allow "a grain of salt" to enter. After the defeat, the armies of Lima and
    Bogota occupied the city, and a year later, on August 2, 1810, they murdered
    300 patriots and citizens, which shook entire America.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICA

    When Fernando VII returned
    to the throne in 1814,
    patriotic military campaigns
    subsisted in Venezuela and
    the Río de la Plata. In the
    first, Simón Bolívar -Member
    of the Caraqueña boards of
    1811- was named new military
    leader, and in 1813 he liberated Mérida and Caracas in the so-called
    Admirable Campaign, cities that gave him the title of "Liberator"
  • MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE

    The priest Miguel
    Hidalgo was placed in
    front of the Indians and
    peasants and launched,
    as we saw, the "cry of
    independence" in the
    town of Dolores.
    Throughout three years,
    it obtained triumphs with
    its army and occupied several cities of Mexico, but was defeated in
    Guadalajara and executed by the realistic authorities in 1811. The command
    was taken by another priest, José Maria Morelos, who led the second stage.
  • BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCE

    When Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and
    later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base
    of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve". Thus, Rio de Janeiro
    becomes the seat of an absolute monarchy as well as those of Europe.
  • NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELA

    Morillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
    Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
    faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818. However, later, Morillo
    counterattacked and defeated Bolivar in the valley of Aragua.
  • NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELA

    Morillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
    Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
    faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818. However, later, Morillo
    counterattacked and defeated Bolivar in the valley of Aragua. Then Bolívar
    crossed the Andes and defeated the royalists in the battle of Pantano de Vargas
    (25-07-1819). which sealed the independence of New Granada.
  • . INDEPENDENCE OF CHILE

    San Martin was not discouraged and
    decided to continue with his plans,
    only now he first had to liberate
    Chile. For that he spent years
    making weapons, bullets and all
    kinds of equipment, and organizing
    the Army of the Andes. The
    crossing was epic, but, as they had
    planned, the six columns met less
    than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although it suffered a serious
    defeat in Cancha Rayada (19-03-1818), it triumphed in the decisive battle
  • INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADOR

    Let us remember how the independence of Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the arrival of the patriot army commanded by Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated the independence of the Great Colombia.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADOR

    Let us remember how the independence of
    Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the
    arrival of the patriot army commanded by
    Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in
    Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated
    the independence of the Great Colombia.
  • PERU

    Together with O'Higgins, and with
    200,000 pesos that he obtained from
    Buenos Aires, San Martín managed to
    buy a naval squadron to attack the
    Spaniards in Peru by sea. San Martin
    sailed from Valparaíso (20-08-1820)
    with a fleet of eight warships and 16
    transport ships, and 4,500 men from
    the armies of the Andes and Chile.
  • CENTRAL AMERICA

    Guatemala with its provinces (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
    Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence
    from the Spanish Crown (15-09-1821) and, shortly after, annexed Mexico to
    defend itself better from Spain. One year later, Guatemala and its provinces
    formed an independent state, of federal character, with the name of United
    Provinces of the Center of America, being its capital city of Guatemala.
    However, local oligarchies promoted separation.
  • SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVAR

    In their meetings in Guayaquil (26 and 27- 07-1822), Bolivar, liberator, and
    president of Gran Colombia, and San Martin, protector of Peru, talked about what
    was missing to complete the freedom of America: the defeat of the last realistic
    bastion in Peru. Surprisingly, San Martin gave Bolivar the initiative of the war
    completely.
  • END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

    In 1823, Bolívar was authorized
    by the Congress of the Gran
    Colombia to take command of
    an expedition to Peru. In
    September of that year, he
    arrived in Lima and met with
    Sucre and the Peruvian leaders
    to plan the attack. Bolivar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army at the Battle
    of Junín (6-08-1824).
  • INDEPENDENCE OF PARAGUAY

    On July 20, 1811, the Paraguayan junta sent a note in which it communicated that Paraguay would govern itself. ... The Paraguayans had made a revolution without firing a gun. On November 25, 1842, the independence of Paraguay was formally proclaimed, after the death of Doctor Francia.
  • THE CASE OF PUERTO RICO

    On September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against
    Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico
    continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and
    Spain. After the defeat of this, the island of Puerto Rico happens to be
    administered by EE. UU and is currently an associated free state of that
    country. Consequently, it is not an independent country.
  • INDEPENDENCE OF CUBA

    José Martí organizes the
    Cuban Revolutionary
    Party and looks for the old
    leaders of the revolution,
    unifies the different
    currents, builds a small
    army, and disembarks in
    Cuba. Martí dies in one of
    the combat actions
    (1895), but the revolutionary army continues to fight. The USA does not want
    to lose the possibility of taking over the largest island of the Antilles and, in
    1898, after the explosion of the battleship Maine in the port of Havana, he
    declares war on Spain.