Causes of Latin America Independence1.Economic: the bourbon reforms preventing intraregional trade and imposing excessive taxacion
2.Social: Spaniards and creoles
3.Ideological: the forerunners of independence became aware of the differences between the colonies
4.Influence of US independence and the french Evolution
THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDS (1)When proclaiming the Sovereign Boards, the
South American Creoles held three theses:
The rejection of Napoleon's claims to
America, the loyalty to Ferdinand VII and,
most importantly, the illegitimacy of both
Joseph Bonaparte and the colonial
authorities appointed by the Spanish king,
who no longer had any power.
Quito was to be the first in the history of
Spanish America to proclaim, on August 10, 1809, a government of its own,
not appointed by the Crown.
THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDS, (2)Soon they would proclaim their meetings,
immediately, throughout 1810, Caracas (19/04), Buenos Aires (25/05),
Bogota (20/07), and Santiago de Chile (18/08).
In Mexico, the priest Hidalgo would give in the town of Dolores (Guanajuato,
16/08), the scream of independence moved exactly by the same ideals:
"Long live the Virgin of Guadalupe! Down with the bad government! Long
live Fernando VII! "
1.7independence of EcuadorLet us remember how the independence of
Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the
arrival of the patriot army commanded by
Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in
Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated
the independence of the Great Colombia.
Let us remember, also, that Bolivar defeated
the royalist pastures in the battle of
Bomboná, and entered triumphant Quito (16-06-1822) and, later, he waited for
the president of Peru, General José de San Martín
First Independences in AmericaQuito was the first in the history of Spanish America of proclaim, on August 10, 1809 a government of its own,, not appointed by the crown. inmediately, throughout 1810, Caracas (19/04) Buenos Aires(25/05)Bogota (20/07)and Santiago de Chile (18/08).
1.9 Independence of ChileSan Martin was not discouraged and decided to continue with his plans, only now he first had to liberate Chile. For that he spent years making weapons, bullets and all
kinds of equipment, and organizing
the Army of the Andes.
1.9 Independence of ChileThe crossing was epic, but, as they had planned, the six columns met less than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although it suffered a serious defeat in Cancha Rayada (19-03-1818), it triumphed in the decisive battle of Maipú (5-04-1818), assuring the independence of Chile.
FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCEThe Spanish authorities fiercely repressed the first of the cities to form a Sovereign Junta. They tried to prevent the contagion. The viceroys of Lima and Bogota immediately sent troops with the order to besiege Quito and not allow "a grain of salt" to enter. After the defeat, the armies of Lima and Bogota occupied the city, and a year later, on August 2, 1810, they murdered 300 patriots and citizens, which shook entire America
FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCE part 2In the beginning, the Juntas were not independent: they were called interim depositaries of the sovereignty until the legitimate king returned. But the reaction of the Spaniards led to
the polarization of the positions
and the creole elites multiplied,
since 1811, the proclamation,
without ambages (plainly), of
independence (in Caracas, for
example, the First Republic was
FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCE part 3The military reaction of
the colonial authorities was
immediate. They met with little success, for they had no trained armies. The
Creole reaction was increasingly strong and organized, which turned the
process into a true continental war that lasted for several years
1.1 Independense of MexicoThroughout three years,
it obtained triumphs with
its army and occupied several cities of Mexico, but was defeated in
Guadalajara and executed by the realistic authorities in 1811. The command
was taken by another priest, José Maria Morelos, who led the second stage
of the revolution (1811-1815). He introduced a liberal state and agrarian
reform. But he had him shot in 1815. Frustrated in their desire for autonomy
1.Independence of South AmericaTo quell the independence movement, Fernando
VII ordered to organize the so-called "Peacekeeping expedition" which,
under the command of Marshal Pablo Morillo, sailed from Cádiz in 1815. It
was the greatest force that would leave Spain in the course of the war: 65
main ships, 18 of battle, a ship of the line of 74 guns, 15,000 men,
accouterments, and provisions.
1.5Independence of Brazil(1807) and
later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base
of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve". Thus, Rio de Janeiro
becomes the seat of an absolute monarchy as well as those of Europe, and no longer a colony
1.6 Independence de New Granada and VenezuelaBolivar crossed the Andes and defeated the royalists in the battle of Pantano de Vargas
(25-07-1819). which sealed the independence of New Granada.
One more year of skirmishes and Morillo and Bolívar sign the War
Regularization Treaty (27-11-1820), which ends the "War to Death" period. A
few months later, the royalist army was defeated in the battle of Carabobo, the
final victory of Venezuela's independence (June 25, 1821)
1.8 Independence of Argentina,Paraguay and UruguayColonel José Artigas commanded the revolutionary troops who
defeated the royalists at the Battle of Las Piedras (18-05-1811) and besieged thewalled Montevideo, where the viceregal government had moved.
The Oriental Republic of Uruguay, fed up with its disappointments with the centralism of Buenos Aires, and after the War with Brazil (1825-1828), it would be established as an independent entity in 1828. In this action, Artigas no longer
participated, since he was exiled in Paraguay.
1.2Central America,Guatemala,Provinces of the Center of AmericaGuatemala
with its provinces (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence Provinces of the Center of America
being its capital city of Guatemala.
However, local oligarchies promoted separation. This led to a civil war (1838-
1840), in which Guatemala could not prevail.
but was rejected, although it remained with the enclave of Belize.
1.8 Independence of Argentina,Paraguay and UruguayThe first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-051810) organized three military campaigns to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful. However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion (14-05-1811), and
the resulting government-held independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay was created. In the Banda Oriental, the rural population rose against the Spanish authorities in Montevideo.
1.4 The Case of Puerto RicoOn September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against
Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico
continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and
Spain. After the defeat of this, the island of Puerto Rico happens to be
administered by EE. UU and is currently an associated free state of that
country. Consequently, it is not an independent country.
1.3Independence of CubaMartí dies in one of the combat actions
(1895), but the revolutionary army continues to fight. The USA does not want to lose the possibility of taking over the largest island of the Antilles and, in 1898, after the explosion of the battleship Maine in the port of Havana, he declares war on Spain. The intervention of EE. UU precipitated the Spanish defeat and Cuba proclaimed its independence in 1899, although it suffered
the American occupation.