BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCEWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve
CAUSES OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCEIn the independence of Latin America, as in any complex process, many causes can be distinguished, among them:
Influence of US independence and the French Revolution. Napoleon names king of Spain.
The independence in latin americaThe independence of Latin America was the historical process of the rebellion of its inhabitants against Spanish colonial rule and the formation of independent national states. It began with the proclamation of Sovereign Boards in 1809.
THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDSWhen proclaiming the Sovereign Boards, the South American Creoles held three theses: The rejection of Napoleon's claims to America, the loyalty to Ferdinand VII and
Quito was to be the first in the history of Spanish America to proclaim, on August 10, 1809, a government of its own, not appointed by the Crown. Soon they would proclaim their meetings
FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCEThe Spanish authorities fiercely repressed the first of the cities to form a Sovereign Junta. They tried to prevent the contagion. The viceroys of Lima and Bogota immediately sent troops with the order to besiege Quito and not allow "a grain of salt" to enter.
ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAYThe first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-051810) organized three military campaigns
to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful.
However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion
INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICAWhen Fernando VII returned
to the throne in 1814,
patriotic military campaigns
subsisted in Venezuela and
the Río de la Plata.
HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGOThe priest Miguel Hidalgo was placed in front of the Indians and peasants and launched, as we saw, the "cry of independence" in the town of Dolores. Throughout three years
NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELAMorillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo
INDEPENDENCE OF CHILESan Martin was not discouraged and
decided to continue with his plans
PERUTogether with O'Higgins, and with
200,000 pesos San Martín managed to
buy a naval squadron
CENTRAL AMERICAGuatemala with its provinces (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence
from the Spanish Crown
INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADORLet us remember how the independence of
Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the
arrival of the patriot army commanded by
Antonio José de Sucre
SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVARIn their meetings in Guayaquil (26 and 27- 07-1822), Bolivar, liberator, and
president of Gran Colombia, and San Martin
END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCEIn 1823, Bolívar was authorized
by the Congress of the Gran
Colombia to take command of
THE CASE OF PUERTO RICOOn September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and Spain.
INDEPENDENCE OF CUBAJosé Martí organizes the Cuban Revolutionary Party and looks for the old leaders of the revolution, unifies the different currents, builds a small army, and disembarks in Cuba.
INDEPENDENCE OF CUBAJosé Martí organizes the Cuban Revolutionary Party and looks for the old leaders of the revolution, unifies the different