Mussolini and Fascist Italy

Timeline created by nazh01
In History
  • Formation of an independent Italy

    Formation of an independent Italy
    The Risorgimento movement, beginning in 1815, under the leadership of Mazzini Giuseppe and Garibaldi Giuseppe, helped to create an independent Italy. However, the Catholic Church still had its separate state in Rome and surrounding areas. The movement also helped to awaken the national consciousness of the Italian people, and led to many important political events in the years ahead. This photo was chosen because it helps to emphasize the difference before and after italian unification.
  • Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy
    Once the Franco Prussian war was ended, Italian troops decided to to annex the Papal states into the Italian Kingdom. This later caused tension between the catholic church and the new kingdom. This image is important because it helps to show how large of a change the integration of the papal states was for Italy, and also helps to provide a reason for later conflicts and hostility.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)

    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)
    This war was fought between Italy and Ethiopia from 1895 to 1896, and started from the disputed Treaty of Wuchale. Ethiopia won due to the stronger military and more troops. This was was very disappointing for Italy, as it created a halt in plans for colonial expansion. This photo was chosen because it shows the Ethiopians towering over the Italians, displaying a clear victor. This emphasizes how much of a loss this was for Italians.
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

    Italy invades and takes over Libya
    Italy decided to invade Libya, which was a turkish colony at the time, to stop the growth of French influence in North Africa, and further grow the italian empire. This proved to be successful, and gave Italy motivation to continue its imperial tactics. This photo was chosen because it shows the brutal reality of the invasion, which shows the determination of Italians to grow in size and power, no matter what.
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    Once Benito Mussolini was released from prison for war protesting, he was able to become an editor for the Socialist Newspaper, Avanti. Mussolini's articles mostly promoted a revolution against the liberal state and helped remove pro-royalists and reformists from the Socialist Party. This photo was chosen because it helps to show how Avanti helped Mussolini to garner attention and spread his ideas, throughout Italy.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I

    Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I
    Mussolini was fired from Avanti, due to no longer supported the idea of ​​a class struggle, moving towards more a nationalistic mindset. This led him to create his own newspaper, the Il Popolo d'Italia, to help promote the war. This photo was chosen because it shows the large difference between Avanti and Il Popolo d'Italia.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    Italians were divided on whether or not to enter WWI, for example, members of the fasci, like the anarcho-syndicalists and national socialists, believed war would spark revolution. Eventually the liberal politicians decided to join with the Triple Entente, and the treaty of London was signed. This photo is important because it shows the land Italy was promised in the treaty, which provides a motive for joining the war.
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    The increasing unemployment in Italy, in effect led to militant action from industrial workers through forms like protests and strikes, as well as land occupations organized by trade unions and labor workers. This photo was chosen because it helps to show how large Biennio Rosso was becoming, at a very fast rate.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    The Fascio di Combattimento, were a fighting group of 118 people from various political groups, who formed with the intention of uniting socialists and nationalists. This photo was chosen because it shows all the different individuals whom were apart of Fascio di Combattimento, displaying various different backgrounds and opinions. This helps to clearly see how the different parties were represented.
  • D’Annunzio takes Fiume

    D’Annunzio takes Fiume
    In 1919, Gabriele D'Annunzio led 2000 men into Fiume, one of the lands that was promised to Italy in the treaty of London but never received. D'Annunzio took control of the city for 15 months defying orders by the liberal government. In effect, many Italian nationalists viewed him as a hero. This photo is important because it helps to show the large amount of power that D'Annunzio held, as everyone is looking to him for instructions.
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    Giolitti and Mussolini formed an electoral alliance for the national elections, Giolitti offering electoral assistance, to be held that month to help reduce the power of socialists. This photo was chosen because shows what Giolitti looked like, an important figure for conservative italians.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    After resigning from the Fascist Central Committee, Mussolini persuaded the Fascio di Combattimento to reform into a political party. This photo helps demonstrate how large of a growing influence Mussolini was growing in Italy, and also demonstrates the coexisting nature of violence and fascism.
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    As the Ras wanted to go national, Mussolini appeased the militant supporters by agreeing towards the March on Rome. This was significant as it officially established the fascists as the leading political party in Italy, and resulted in Mussolini being appointed Prime Minister by Victor Emmanuel III. This photo was chosen because it shows Mussolini leading a crowd during the march, already many seeing him as a capable leader.
  • Acerbo Law passed

    Acerbo Law passed
    This law was an electoral law which made the party with the most votes, gain 2/3 of the parliament seats. It was signed November of 1923, and later became highly important in the Fascist's entry into government since the fascists began with 35 seats in chamber to 373 out of 535. This photo was used because it shows just how many fascists were in parliament at that point, demonstrating the large amount of power they had.
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    In the summer of 1923, Greece refused to pay 50 million lire for the murder of an Italian general on Greek soil, so Mussolini pushed for the invasion of Corfu in Greece, which in caused Greece to eventually pay. This helped Mussolini more politically, as more Italians viewed him as a national hero. This photo was chosen because it helps to show the close distance of Italy and Greece.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    Matteotti a well respected socialist, spoke out about fascist violence that was occuring. In June of 1924, he was abducted and murdered, leaving many to neglect Mussolini's regime. This eventually resulted in the Aventine Secession and is significant in the public becoming more aware of what was happening behind closed doors. This political cartoon was chosen because it represents how Italians began disliking Mussolini, and his decreasing trust from the public.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    After the Matteotti Crisis, many deputies, including socialists, radical Popolari, and communists boycotted the Parliament with the intention of forcing the king to dismiss Mussolini after his involvement with the crisis. This photo was chosen because,the image of Matteoti's coffin being carried around, highlights the discontent that people had with Mussolini because of it.
  • Locarno Treaty signed

    Locarno Treaty signed
    After World War 1, this treaty had guaranteed Germany's western frontier with Italy and Britain committing themselves to help repel armed aggression coming across the frontier. This photo is important as it shows the key individuals who helped create this treaty, but also further provides evidence as to why the Italians were frustrated, as the men were not even Italian.
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    This was a campaign mostly aimed towards farmers, to help them grow more cereal and reduce Italy's dependency on foreign imports. This was successful to a moderate extent as it helped double cereal production and making Italians more self-sufficient in wheat, but misallocation of resources was also an effect. This propaganda photo was chosen because it helps show the view Mussolini wanted people to see the battle as, and further promoted the campaign as well.
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    In the battle for land, the plan was to drain marshes and swamps to help allow the establishment of small farms, and also create work for the unemployed. In the Battle for the Lira, Mussolini artificially raised the value of the lira which resulted in a later recession that worsened when the Great Depression hit. This photo is significant as it shows Italians clearing the land, to increasing farming.
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    The goal of the battle for births was to reinforce the domestic roles, and women should increase the population of Italy. Some benefits were given to those who were married and would have children. This battle was unsuccessful to a large extent, as it resulted in decreased employment in women and a decline in birth rates. This photo is important because it was used to promote domestic life as being an experience that all women should want to have.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    This treaty was hoped to be an international agreement, which those who signed promised not to use war to resolve conflicts and disputes no matter the origin. The agreement failed since none of the powers ever enforced the terms of the treaty. This photo is significant as it shows how many nations were apart of this treaty, and how multinational it truly was.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Lateran Treaty with Pope
    Mussolini's government agreed to accept papal sovereignty over Vatican City, and in return, the Pope agreed to formally recognize the Italian state and the possession of Rome. This negatively impacted Mussolini as the Catholic church remained a rival to Mussolini. This image is important as it shows the key individuals involved within the treaty.
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    This crisis was created due to Italy's invasion of Abyssinia and in effect the League of Nations to impose economic sanctions on Italy. This has significance in the future in which aims were made to prevent Italy's alliance with Germany, however, this crisis reduced chances of Italy obliging. This photo was chosen as it shows exactly the plans made to invade.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    The stress front was a European Alliance between Italy, Britain, and France in hopes of preventing and opposing Hitler's decision of wanting to rearm Germany. This is significant as it violated terms of the Treaty of Versailles terms. From Italy's pov, Mussolini held grudges towards France and Britain for opposing his invasion of Abyssinia. This political drawing was chosen as it shows how the countries are isolating Germany, however Italy is looking to Hitler, alluding to possible alliances.
  • Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War

    Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War
    Mussolini decided to intervene in the Spanish Civil War to support the nationalist cause. Italy, along with Germany, provided the nationalists with much of its military equipment. This shows how both Mussolini and Hitler begin to spread their influence towards other countries of their nationalistic ideals. This image is significant as it shows how many Spanish individuals felt about Italy and Germany's involvement.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed
    The Rome-Berlin Axis was an official pact between Italy and Germany that linked the two countries in cooperation. As a result, Italy's fascists ideologies became more anti-Semitic. This photo is important as it shows both leaders side by side, officially allied together.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    The Munich Conference helped to create an agreement in which Germany gained the ability to annex the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia. However, Hitler also manipulated the British and the French of fears of another world war to pass this agreement. This image is important as it shows the few key individuals involved in making decision that would affect millions.
  • Italy invades Albania

    Italy invades Albania
    The reason that Mussolini aimed to invade/annex Albania, was to extend it's imperial footprint and help Italy maintain a reputation as a great and influential power. This photo was chosen as it helps to show how quickly Italy was able to hold control over Albania, due to its advanced technology, and army size.
  • Italy enters WWII on side of Germany

    Italy enters WWII on side of Germany
    The biggest reason Italy joined the war, was to achieve territorial gain in Africa and the Middle East. This is significant as it demonstrates Mussolini's true intentions was only more imperial power. This photo is important as it shows how big of event this was, not just for italians, but the world.
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II

    Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II
    After a series of failures, the Fascist Grand Council voted 19 to 7 to remove Mussolini from power. Soon after, the king ordered Mussolini to resign. This is significant as it shows even through Mussolini's dictatorship, he was not as strong as he had believed, which showed the power of the people over the dictator. This image is important as it shows just how many individuals were involved in bringing down Mussolini, and how his popularity had decreased significantly.
  • Mussolini killed

    Mussolini killed
    After being arrested the previous day for trying to flee with the Germans, a communist-led group of partisans shot Mussolini and his mistress. This image is significant as it shows how once Mussolini was one of the most powerful men in the world, and only in the matter of months, how quick everything was to change.