Mussolini and Fascist Italy

Timeline created by edixon2185
In History
  • Formation of an Independent Italy

    Formation of an Independent Italy
    Italy became a sovereign state when the countries within the Italian Peninsula were unified into one country. This was known as Risorgimento, which was both a political and social movement. I chose to use this image, because it was the official flag of the Kingdom of Italy. As a result, this image is significant to formation of Italy.
  • Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy
    The Papal states were the last to join Italy. The Capture of Rome on September 20, 1870 was the final event and ended Risorgimento. King Victor Emmanuel II ended the reign of the Papal States and ruled over the unified Italy. The map is relevant because it shows Italy before and after unification.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa

    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa
    Italians claimed that Ethiopia was Italy's property under the Treaty of Wuchale. Ethiopia was supported by Russia and France and had modern weapons and more soldiers. Italian defeat came after the Battle of Adwa and the war ended with the Treaty of Addis Ababa. The image is relevant, because it shows the violent nature of the war, specifically the Battle of Adwa.
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

    Italy invades and takes over Libya
    Italy began to colonize Libya in 1911, when they invaded Tripoli on October 3, 1911. The Ottoman sultan then ceded Libya to Italy through the Treaty of Lausanne in 1912. The map is important, as it shows Libya under Italian rule.
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    After his imprisonment for attempting to create a protest against WW1, he became editor of the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti!. He advocated for revolutionary violence towards the liberal state and aided in the expulsion of pro-royalists and reformists from the party. This picture is significant to the event, because it shows the front page of the newspaper and its contents.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW

    Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW
    Mussolini set up the newspaper Il Popolo d'Italia in 1914 to support WW1. As a result, he was expelled from the Socialist Party. The image I chose was relevant to this event, because it shows one of the front pages of Mussolini's newspaper.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    Members of the fasci and the Associazione Nazionalista Italiana protested in the streets demanding Italian involvement in WW1. As a result, in April 1915 Italy signed the Treaty of London, promising they would join the war on the side of the Triple Entente. This image is significant, because it shows which land was to be given to Italy. This shows Italy's motive for joining the war.
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    In 1919 when unemployment rose to around 2,000,000, workers began to launch waves of military action. These years were known as the Biennio Rosso. It included strikes and the occupations of factories and land. This image is relevant because it shows how there was a large amount of people who were involved in Biennio Rosso.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    Members form different political groups formed the Fascio di Combattimento to bring together nationalists and socialists in Italy. The Fascist Programme was published on June 6, 1919 and combined the demands of the left and right wings. The image I chose is significant, because it is the symbol for the organization.
  • D’Annunzio takes Fiume

    D’Annunzio takes Fiume
    Gabriele D'Annuzio led 2000 armed forces to Fiume and took control of the city for 15 months. Since Italy wanted Fiume, but was not granted it from the peace treaties, this was a large step for Italian nationalists. This image is significant, as it shows Fiume in relation to Italy and how its small distance from Italy made is a target for territorial expansion.
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    Due to the fear of a fascist revolution, Mussolini had to reassure liberal politicians and Giolitti that it was not going to happen. Then, Giolitti offered an electoral alliance to the fascists for the national elections. This image is relevant, because it shows how although many people supported Giolitti, socialists still held most of the seats in parliment.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    Mussolini signed the Pact of Pacification with moderate socialists and the General Confederation of Workers which angered the ras. To get around their opposition, he resigned from the Fascist Central Committee and persuaded members of the Fasci di Combattimento to form the organization into the PNF. The image I selected is significant to the event because it shows the symbol of the political party.
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    The ras and their national militia took over roads, railways and telephone lines to limit communication and travel. The king refused to sign the papers to authorize martial law and wanted to form a government, but Mussolini refused. On October 29, the King resigned and appointed Mussolini as the prime minister of Italy. The image I chose is relevant, because it shows the large amount of troops who supported Mussolini and the overthrow of the King.
  • Acerbo Law passed

    Acerbo Law passed
    Mussolini wanted to reform the electoral system to ensure fascist control in parliament. The Acerbo law was introduced and would make the party with at least 25% of the votes to control 2/3 of the seats. Mussolini threatened to abolish parliament and intimidated voters using guards to guarantee that the law was passed. The image I chose is important to this event, because it shows that Mussolini's rise to power included the use of corruption and force.
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    An Italian general was killed in Greece. Mussolini demanded a 50 million lire payment and an apology, but Greece refused. Ignoring the League of nations, Mussolini invaded Greece and eventually got what he demanded. This event cause the popular support of Mussolini to drastically increase. This image shows relevancy to the event, because it shows the nature of the invasion.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    Giacomo Matteotti was an independent and respected socialist who opposed fascist violence and corruption that happened during the 1924 election. He was later abducted and murdered fascists under the order of Amergio Dumini. Many began to oppose Mussolini and he lost a lot of support. The image i chose is relevant, because it is a political cartoon that shows that many though Mussolini was responsible for Matteotti's death.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    Deputies under the leadership of Giovanni Amendola, began to boycott parliament due to the Matteotti Crisis. The deputies left the Chamber and created an alternative assembly and claimed they were the true democratic representatives of Italy. They intended to convince the King to dismiss Mussolini. The image is relevant to the event, as it shows how the public greatly supported Matteotti and viewed Mussolini responsible for his death.
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    The Battle for Grain was an economic battle in response to a bad harvest and an increase in grain imports. Mussolini wanted to be self sufficient in grain production, and began to use most of the land for grain crops. However, this was a failure because although Italy became independent in regards to grain, the imports for other goods like olive oil increased. The image I chose is relevant, because it reveals the new technology being used on grain farms.
  • Locarno Treaty signed

    Locarno Treaty signed
    The Treaty of Locarno were various agreements that were signed by Germany, France, Belgium, Britain and Italy. The most popular treaty was the Treaty of Versailles, where Italy gained Jubaland and the Aozu strip into their colonial land. The political cartoon I chose is relevant, because it reveals that in order to have peace, there must be war and suffering. Additionally, it shows that it is unlikely that everyone will get what they want through treaties.
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    Mussolini wanted to increase the amount of farmland and drained marshes and swamps. He then created small farms, to create work for the unemployed. Additionally, Mussolini wanted to increase the value of the Lira, so he re-valued it. However, both of these battles were failures, because only one significant area of land was gained, and the re-valuing of the Lira caused a decline in exports and unemployment. The image I chose is relevant, because it shows how areas of water were drained.
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    Mussolini created this battle in order to increase Italy's population from 40 million to 60 million by 1950. Women were encouraged to stay as housewives and take care of children. Mussolini intended to make the majority of the workers men, but this failed due to the war. Additionally, Mussolini gave rewards, such as lessened taxes, to couples who met certain criteria. The picture used in important because it shows how Mussolini's image of his family reflected his policies on Italy.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    In order to keep peace after WWI, this treat served to make alliances to prevent Germany from becoming aggressive and entering into a war. This Treaty reveals how the Locorno treaties were not enough to keep peace. The image shown is significant, because it reveals how many countries unified to keep peace.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Lateran Treaty with Pope
    Mussolini wanted to gain more fascist support, so he turned to the Roman Catholic Church. Negotiations between fascists and Cardinal Gasparri caused the Lateran Treaty that ended conflict between the papacy and the state. Vatican City became independent, the state gave 1750 million lire in compensation for the loss of Rome, and roman Catholicism was made the official religion. The image is relevant, because it shows the importance of the Church's support.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    A union between Britain, France and Italy was made to stop Hitler's goal in rearming Germany in response to the Treaty of Versailles. The Stresa front is important because it shows how the Locorno treaties were not enforced correctly. This resulted in many issues that led to WWII. The image is significant, because it shows how Hitler was directly targeted by the Treaty of Versailles and the Sresa Front.
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    The crisis surrounded Italy's aggressive policies towards colonial expansion in modern day Ethiopia. Italy ignored the League of Nations's required sanctions and left the League entirely. They then made deals with Britain and France and annexed Abyssinia. This discredited the League of Nations and caused Italy to be closer to an alliance with Germany. This political cartoon is important because it shows how Mussolini ignored the League and furthered territorial expansion.
  • Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War

    Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War
    Italy intervened in Spain during the Spanish Civil War to support the nationalist cause against the Republic. Italy gave the nationalists planes, tanks, artillery, weapons and troops. The image I chose is relevant to this event, because it shows a poster showing how the republic of Spain viewed Italy as an enemy who wanted to enslave them.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed
    A unification between Germany and Italy was formed and later extended to Japan. They were known as the Axis Powers. This agreement solidified Italy and Germany's relationship, increasing the power they held over Europe and furthering their goals of destabilization. This picture reveals the beginning of Germany controlling Italy and turning it into a "puppet state".
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    The Munich Conference was an agreement between Germany, Italy Britain and France. It allowed Germany to annex Sudetenland, which had millions of German-speaking people. Germany threatened war over this land, so the conference shows how fear of war played a large part in land distribution. The political cartoon is important, because it reveals how certain countries were excluded from the conference.
  • Italy invades Albania

    Italy invades Albania
    The invasion of Albania was campaign by Italy in regards to imperial policy. Albania was defeated and made apart of the Italian Empire. Albania withdrew from the League of Nations and the Albania foreign ministry merged with Italy's. The capture of Albania was what finally caused Mussolini to declare the official creation of the Italian Empire. The image is significant, because it reveals how the rest of the world viewed the invasion.
  • Italy enters WWII on side of Germany

    Italy enters WWII on side of Germany
    After France surrendered in the war, Italy joined on the side of the Axis Powers. Mussolini declared war on France and Britain, hoping the conflict would end soon, and to gain colonial land in North Africa. However, Italy faced great losses, which eventually led to Mussolini's downfall. This image is relevant, because it reveals that propaganda was used during the war to maintain Italian support.
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II

    Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II
    Military setbacks from the war caused a coup against Mussolini. The Fascist Grand Council voted him out of power and the King ordered him to resign. He was arrested, imprisoned and replaced by Marshal Pietro Badoglio. This political cartoon reveals how Mussolini was power hungry and did not focus on maintaining his rule over Italy.
  • Mussolini killed

    Mussolini killed
    Mussolini and his mistress were shot and killed by Italian partisans who captured them as they tried to run away to Switzerland. Their bodies were then hung upside down publicly, to show the defeat of Italy's dictator. The image is important because it shows the public hanging of the bodies and how many were in support of Mussolini's death. This reveals that Mussolini's policies were harmful towards Italy and its people.