Mussolini and Fascist Italy Timeline

Timeline created by FatimaM
In History
  • Formation of an Independent Italy (1861)

    Formation of an Independent Italy (1861)
    In 1861 Italy gained independence from Austria, after the struggles against the Austrian Empire, the nationalist movement Risorgimento succeeded in creating unified independent Italy. However Italy was divided in other ways as the people were not united and there were many underlying problems and the catholic church retained its own separate state in the area surrounding Rome.
    This image shows Italy and the territorial divisions surrounding it in 1861 after it became an independent nation.
  • Papal States Taken over by New Nation of Italy (1870)

    Papal States Taken over by New Nation of Italy (1870)
    The papal states were an obstacle to national unity because they divided Italy and because foreign powers intervened to protect papal independence. However eventually the Papal states were annexed to the new Italian nation, all former papal territories joined new kingdom of Italy and Rome became the capital of Italy.
    This image is important because it shows how the papal states territorial divisions looked before and after becoming apart of Italy's newly independent Kingdom.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (1896)

    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (1896)
    This was a military clash at Adwa, in north-central Ethiopia between Ethiopian army and Italian forces. The Ethiopian army was victorious and this checked Italy's attempt to build an Empire in Africa. The victory was also significant because it was the first defeat of a European power by African forces during the colonial era. This came about from a treaty of friendship signed recognizing Italy's purchase of Massawa, however Italy's conquest of Eritrea resulted in opposition from Abyssinia.
  • Italy Invades and Takes Over Libya (1911)

    Italy Invades and Takes Over Libya (1911)
    This invasion of Libya by Italy happened when Italian troops invaded the Turkish province of Libya and started the Italo-Turkish war. Resulting in two colonies, Italian Tripolitania and Italian Cyrenaica were established, later unified in the colony of Italian Libya. This was done to expand Italy and decrease growth of French Power in Italy.
    This image represents how the invasion of Libya turned into war with soldiers on both sides prepared to fight.
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti (1912)

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti (1912)
    Avanti was an Italian daily newspaper that was born as the official voice of the Italian Socialist Party. During Mussolini's early political views he wrote articles for this newspaper mainly advocating reformist, pro loyalist and revolutionary violence. His role with this newspaper helped in his rise to power.
    This image shows how the newspaper looked like during the time.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WWI (OCT 1914)

    Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WWI (OCT 1914)
    The socialist party's stance on Italy in WWI was neutral but however outbreak of the war led Mussolini to make a dramatic political change and he began to oppose this stance and advocated for military intervention. He was supported by his friends for joining the Franco-British side and he set up his own newspaper financed by wealthy Italian companies to campaign in favor of war. Shortly after the establishment of the newspaper he was expelled from the socialist party.
  • Treaty of London (1915)

    Treaty of London (1915)
    In 1915 Italy signed the treaty of London promising to join the war on the side of the Triple Entente and participation in the war leads to inflation. War did not go well for Italy as soldiers were ill equipped and many died. Italy borrowed heavily from other nations to finance and inflation had significant negative impact. Italy felt humiliated and cheated by ends terms of treaty with no African territory gained.
    This image shows the territory promised to Italy after the war.
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso (1919)

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso (1919)
    During the two years of Bienno Rosso, unemployment rose to over 2 mil and industrial workers began a wave of militant action. There were strikes, factory and land occupations organized by trade unions and peasants leagues. Government did little and encouraged employers and landowners to make some concessions and set up food committees to control distribution, lack of forceful action led to gov. looking incompetent.
    This image shows the large scale of people a and type of people involved.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan (March 1919)

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan (March 1919)
    In March 1919, Mussolini as a member of Arditi tried to bring the different groups together. There was a meeting held in Milan with representatives from 118 various political groups, and they formed FDC(combat fighting group). They intended to bring together nationalist, socialist, and militant sounding Fascist program was published. Combined various left and right wing demands, hatred of liberal regime united groups

    Image shows type of people involved in the group,mainly men.
  • D’Annunzio takes Fiume (SEP 1919)

    D’Annunzio takes Fiume (SEP 1919)
    Mussolini's small network of militant agitators was soon overshadowed by the actions of D'Annunzio as he led 2000 armed men to take the city of Fuime an area Italy sought. His force quickly took control and ruled the city for 15 months, this made him a hero to Italian nationalist and inspired Mussolini. He decided to adapt theatrical trappings used by him and parades/balcony speeches.
    This image shows people's perspective on him as he was respected for what he accomplished.
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti (1921)

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti (1921)
    May of 1921, Mussolini forms anti-socialist national Bloc electoral alliance with Giolitti for national elections due to be held, 35 fascist were elected including Mussolini. During election campaign fascist squads continued violence. Socialist still remained largest party with 123 seats. Giolitti disappointed by results, Mussolini pleased with outcome of the election his group won right of movement, 7% of vote and 35 seats.
    This image shows the man Giolitti was and gives a face to the name.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader (Oct 1921)

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader (Oct 1921)
    In October 1921, Mussolini persuaded members of Fasci Di Combattimento to re-form the organization into a political party. Mussolini followed victory in November 1921 by persuading the Fascist national congress to elect him as leader, in return he agreed to end the truce with the socialist and ordered all branches to organize action squads. Local ras still had influence and autonomy and Mussolini could now present himself as the clear leader of an organized and united political party.
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister (OCT 1922)

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister (OCT 1922)
    Mussolini agreed to organize March on Rome, to appease more militant supporters/ intimidate liberal gov. into making concessions. March on Rome was more myth than reality, Mussolini did not march at head of columns, arrived in Rome by train, having already accepted position of prime minister. King asked conservative Salandra to form gov. Mussolini rejected offer, King appointed Mussolini as prime minister.
    Image shows when Mussolini was appointed prime minister by the king.
  • Acerbo Law passed (1923)

    Acerbo Law passed (1923)
    To reform the electoral system which Mussolini desired, Acerbo outlined that the party that gets 2/3 seat in parliament, wins the most votes, at least 25%. The purpose was to give Mussolini's fascist party a majority of deputies.
    The image illustrates how Acerbo Law was put into place.
  • Corfu Incident (1923)

    Corfu Incident (1923)
    This incident consisted of an Italian General being killed on Greek land while making maps. This allowed Mussolini to ask Greece 50 million lire as compensation for the incident as well as make a full apology. Greece refuses to pay because they felt they weren't responsible and as a result Mussolini Italian marines to invade their island Corfu. Eventually the Greek paid and Mussolini became perceived as a national hero
    This image shows where the island is from Italy and outs it in perspective.
  • Aventine Secession (1924)

    Aventine Secession (1924)
    For the murder of Matteotti, Dumini was found guilty and this resulted in oppositions of deputies with boycott of parliament under Giovanni Amendola. There were intentions to kill Mussolini as well but the king blamed opposition.
    This image shows opposition from the large scale of people involved.
  • Locarno Treaty signed (Dec 1, 1925)

    Locarno Treaty signed (Dec 1, 1925)
    This pact that was signed included a series of agreements where France, Belgium, Great Britain, Italy and Germany mutually guaranteed peace in Western Europe.
    The image shows the representatives involved in the signing of the treaty, they were only white men.
  • Battle of Grain (1925)

    Battle of Grain (1925)
    A more serious campaign, launched in response to a poor harvest and a consequent increase in grain import. The aim was to get Italian farmers to grow more cereals to reduce Italy's dependence on foreign imports, also imposing controls, more land available for growing grain this done by posture land and draining swamps and marshes. Medals awarded to most productive farmers. Increased use of tractors and fertilizers also benefited industrial firms. Farming financed from public funds created jobs.
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira (1926)

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira (1926)
    Battle for land was a further attempt to increase amount of farmland. Marshes and swamps were drained which allowed the establishment of many small farms. In August 18, the Battle for Lira began when value for Italian currency dropped. To restore value abroad and to increase Italian prestige, the lire was re-valued, allowing Italy to continue importing coal and iron for armaments and shipbuilding.

    This image shows what actions were taken to make more farmland
  • Battle for Births (1927)

    Battle for Births (1927)
    Women suffered most during Fascism, their status consistently downgraded especially with the battle for births. This stressed the traditional role of women as housewives and mothers causing a downturn in employment opportunities for women. Attempted to increase Italian population and create large future army that would expand Italy's empire. Fascist encouraged early marriage and offered generous benefits to married couples and couples with 6 kids, although ultimately battle unsuccessful.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed (1928)

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed (1928)
    This was an international agreement where states promised not to use war to resolve any conflicts or disputes that could arise among them. There were no mechanisms for enforcement for this agreement.
    The image shows how there was a large number of states involved in the signing of this agreement.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope (1929)

    Lateran Treaty with Pope (1929)
    Terms of the treaty included the government accepting papal sovereignty over Vatican City, which became an independent state. In return the pope formally recognized the Italian state and its possessions of Rome and former papal states. These Lateran agreements ended the conflict and bitterness that had existed between papacy and Italian state since 1870.
    This image shows the negotiation between the pope and Mussolini that healed the wounds of the papacy.
  • Stresa Front (1935)

    Stresa Front (1935)
    This was an agreement made in Stresa a town in Italy. This was between the French Prime Minister and British Prime Minister and Italian Prime Minister Mussolini. Its aim was to reaffirm the Locarno treaties and to declare that the independence of Austria would continue their common policy. The signatories agreed to resist any future attempts by Germany to change the Treaty of Versailles.
    The image shows the place where the conference for the treaty was held on a small island in front of Stresa
  • Abyssinian Crisis (1935)

    Abyssinian Crisis (1935)
    international crisis in 1935 originating in the Walwal incident in the ongoing conflict between the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Ethiopia. The League of nations ruled against Italy and voted for economic sanctions, but they were never fully applied. Mussolini wanted to invade Abyssinia because they had the raw materials he wanted for the Italian industry and France and Britain were not willing to go to war in defense of Abyssinia.

    The image shows Italian influence in Ethiopia
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed (1936)

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed (1936)
    This agreement was formulated by Italy's foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking Germany and Italy. The coalition grew with Japan which was another country willing to fight with the Allied nations.
    This image represents how the agreement was made in positive light and the two sides were ready to cooperate.
  • Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War (1936)

    Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War (1936)
    During the Spanish Civil War to support the nationalist against the Second Spanish Republic Italy became involved. Italy was confident in its power because of the conquest of Ethiopia in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, Mussolini joined the to secure Fascist control of the Mediterranean. Although Spain defeated Italy.
    This propaganda shows the tensions during this time and the different sides involved.
  • Munich Conference (1938)

    Munich Conference (1938)
    This Conference was held in Munich on September 28--29, 1938, where the leaders of Great Britain, France, and Italy agreed to allow Germany to annex certain areas of Czechoslovakia. The Munich Conference came as a result of a long series of negotiations.
    This image shows Germany and Italy both as vital participants in the conference.
  • Italy invades Albania (1939)

    Italy invades Albania (1939)
    The Italian invasion of Albania was a brief military campaign against Albania. The conflict was a result of the imperialist policies of Italian dictator Mussolini. Albania was rapidly overrun, and it ruler was forced into exile and the country was made part of the Italian Empire.
    The image shows Italian forces in Albania.
  • Italy enters WW II on side of Germany (1940)

    Italy enters WW II on side of Germany (1940)
    Italy highly aided Germany in WWII. Half of the 350,000 workers sent to Germany by Mussolini were skilled workers. sending food he to Germany resulted in shortages in Italy, and rationing was implemented. The inefficiency of the rationing system caused rise of the black market.This ultimately caused discontent with Germany.
    The image shows the relationship between Germany and Italy as positive, reasoning for Italy providing so much support.
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II (1943)

    Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II (1943)
    A coup against Mussolini occurred on 24 July 1943, when the Fascist Grand Council voted 19 to 7 to remove him from power. The king ordered Mussolini to resign. He was then arrested and replaced by Marshal Pietro Badoglio.
    This image shows Mussolini being arrested and the end of his regime.
  • Mussolini Killed (1945)

    Mussolini Killed (1945)
    In April 1945, northern city of Bologna was captured, and the Germans decided to pulled out of Italy. Mussolini attempted to flee with the Germans, but was recognized by Italian partisans and arrested. The next day, Mussolini was taken by another, communist-led, group of partisans,he and his
    mistress were shot.
    The image shows the 15 other fascist leaders and ministers who were hung upside down outside a garage in Piazzale Loreto in Milan