HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGOIn 1803, Jean Jacques Dessalines finally defeated the French
troops and, in 1804, declared the independence of Haiti. It was, then, the
second independent country in America, in this case, led by blacks.
CAUSES OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF LATIN AMERICALatin American society had reached a point of great discontent as a consequence of the Spanish colonization.
INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICAIt was a political and military process that took place between 1809, and that took place in almost all the American territories governed by Spain.
THE LACK OF KING, OCCASION OF THE AMERICAN BOARDThe lack of a king that led to the emergence of government boards in the populations of America was the abdication of King Carlos IV and the consequent capture of his son, King Ferdinand VII, after the invasion of Spain by Napoleon Bonaparte.
FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCEAfter the defeat, the armies of Lima and
Bogotá occupied the city and a year later, on August 2, 1810, they murdered
300 patriots and citizens, who shook all of America.
The independence of ColombiaThe independence of Colombia [Cry of Independence: July 20, 1810 / Official independence of the country: August 7, 1819]
MEXICAN INDEPENDENCEIt was the consequence of a political and social process resolved with arms, which put an end to Spanish rule in most of the territories of New Spain.
ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAYIn the Banda Oriental, the rural population rose up against the Spanish authorities in
Montevideo. Colonel José Artigas commanded the revolutionary troops that
defeated the royalists at the Battle of Las Piedras (05-18-1811) and besieged the
Walled Montevideo, where the viceregal government had moved.
INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICA
INDEPENDENCE OF CHILEOfficially, the emancipation of Chile was declared on January 1, 1818 through the Act of Independence of Chile, officially sworn on February 12, 1818. This declaration was recognized by Spain on April 24, 1844.4. It is noted that the independence treaty is signed in the Talcahuano commune of the city of Concepción.
NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELABolívar, Piar, Páez and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818. However, later, Morillo
he counterattacked and defeated Bolívar in the Aragua valley. So Bolivar
crossed the Andes and defeated the royalists in the battle of Pantano de Vargas
INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADORThe Independence of Guayaquil on October 9, 1820 marks the beginning of the war of independence of the Royal Audience of Quito, which ends with the Battle of Pichincha, near Quito, on May 24, 1822.
PeruTogether with O'Higgins, and with
200,000 pesos that you got from
Buenos Aires, San Martín achieved
buy a naval squad to attack the
Spaniards in Peru by sea. San Martin
sailed from Valparaíso (20-08-1820)
with a fleet of eight warships and 16
transport ships, and 4,500 men of
the armies of the Andes and Chile.
BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCEThe Independence of Brazil comprises a series of political events that occurred between 1821 and 1824, most of which included conflicts between Brazil and Portugal. Thus giving way to the proclamation of independence presented by the Empire of Brazil on September 7, 1822.
SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVARAt their meetings in Guayaquil (07-27-1822), Bolívar, Libertador and
president of Gran Colombia, and San Martín, protector of Peru, spoke of what
was missing to complete the freedom of America: the defeat of the last royalist
bastion in Peru. Surprisingly, San Martín gave Bolívar the initiative of the war
completely. He returned to Lima, resigned the government of Peru (20-
091822), and returned home to Mendoza, Argentina (01-1823). One year later,
The independence of South AmericaIndependence was proclaimed in 1822 by the son of the King of Portugal. Pedro I established a constitutional monarchy that reigned until the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889. After its independence, South America suffered in some of its countries various types of dictatorships and strongmen.
END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCEIn 1824 the Spanish army was defeated in Ayacucho. This battle marked the end of the Spanish presence in continental America. Further north, the great figure was, without a doubt, Simón Bolívar "El Libertador", entering with his troops in Santa Fe de Bogotá.
CENTRAL AMERICAIt formed an independent state, federal in character, with the name of United
Provinces of Central America, being its capital city of Guatemala.
However, the local oligarchies promoted the separation. This led to a civil war (1838-
1840), in which Guatemala could not prevail. England invaded Nicaragua
but it was rejected, although it remained with the enclave of Belize.
THE CASE OF PUERTO RICOOn September 23, 1868, the cry of Lares, of independence against
Spain, it occurred. The rebellion is crushed in no time. Puerto Rico
INDEPENDENCE OF CUBAMartí dies in one of
(1895), but the revolutionary army continues to fight. America does not want
lose the possibility of seizing the largest island in the Antilles and, in
1898, after the explosion of the battleship Maine in the port of Havana,
declare war on Spain.