Paula Suárez Mallón_G&H_4ºH

Timeline created by paulasuarez1
In History
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    Modern History

    It's the period that goes from the 15th century (discovery of America) to the French Revolution.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    In the First Industrial Revolution there was an industrialization of manufactured textiles that started to move the production from homes to factories. Steam power and the cotton gin played an important role in this period (that starts in 1750 and ends in 1880). There were many changes: Agricultural, demographic, technological, transport changes and also a trade and financial Revolution.
  • James Watt's steam engine

    James Watt's steam engine
    James Watt adapted the steam engine to power industrial machinery between 1763-1764. The function of this machine is to rise productivity and total production in the mechanization of the textile industry. This made it possible lower the cost and reduce the prize of the product. They were also used in agriculture, flour mills and paper mills and were very important in mines (remove water from galleries). Video link:
  • States-General meeting

    States-General meeting
    It was a meeting of representatives of the clergy, the nobility and the 3rd Estate called by Louis XVI to propose solutions to the financial crisis in May 1789.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The 3rd Estate left the State-General meeting when the privileged classes refused allow them greater representation and insisted on one vote per estate rather than one per representative. They met in a pavilion in Versailles, proclaiming themselves the National Assembly. On July 14 they stormed the Bastille. Louis XVI was frightened by the situation and, in autumn of 1789, accepted the National Assembly.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    It is one of the fundamental documents of the Revolution. In it, they collected the rights, individual freedoms and equality of all citizens in law and taxation.
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    Constitutional Monarchy

    It was the first phase of the French Revolution. The National Constituent Assembly (moderate bourgeoisie) and Louis XVI established the Constitutional Monarchy. On August 1789, they abolished feudalism approving the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen and on September 1791, they approved the first Constitution. They also formed a Legislative Assembly that established new liberals laws: Abolition of guilds, the creation of National Guard, nobility paid taxes and the Church was intervened.
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    French Revolution

    It was a social and political movement in France (1789-1799) to eradicate the Old Regime. They were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment and the American Revolution and all this together with the discontent of the Third Estate, the economic and financial crisis. Finally a republic is established.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    Parisian revolutionaries and troops attached the Bastille, a royal fortress and prison that had come to symbolize the Bourbon monarchs' tyranny. This dramatic action signaled the beginning of the French Revolution, a decade of political terror in which King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette, were executed.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Thousands of angry women (because of the high prices of food) marched to Versailles and entered to the palace. In due to this, the king Louis XVI had to abandon Versailles and move to Tuilleries Palace in Paris.
  • First French Constitution

    First French Constitution
    It was promulgated by the National Constituent Assembly and the king Louis XVI. It's a codified text where the powers were separated in: executive (king and ministers), legislative (Legislative Assembly) and judicial (Courts). It drafted new liberal laws.
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    Social Republic

    It was the second phase of the French Revolution. When the republicans stormed the Tuileries Palace and imprisoned the royal family, they decelerated the Social Republic in France.
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    Girondin Convention

    It was an Assembly chosen by universal male suffrage. They executed King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette. This caused an absolutist coalition in Europe to fight with the revolutionaries (counter-revolutionary revolts).
  • War of First Coalition

    War of First Coalition
    It was a union of France, Austria and Prussia to proclaim a war in France to restore the Absolute Monarchy of Louis XVI.
  • Stormed of Tuilleries Palace

    Stormed of Tuilleries Palace
    Republicans stormed Tuilleries Palace and imprisoned the royal family. They declared France as a Republic.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Gerondins executed Louis XVI by guillotine in the Revolution Square (Paris).
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    Jacobin Convention

    They got the power and they were the most extreme phase of the Revolution. They proclaimed a new Constitution where the executive power was the Committee of Public Safety (with Robespierre as leader). Social laws were approved to satisfy the sans-culottes and they acted against the counter-revolutionary.
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    The Reign of Terror

    It was a period of the Revolution in which the Jacobins took place massacres and numerous public executions by guillotine applying the Law of Suspect.
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    Conservative Republic

    When Robespierre was executed the moderate bourgeoisie seized power, cancelled Jacobin laws and drafted the Constitution of 1795 (where the executive power was a Directory). It has the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people.
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    Contemporary History

    It's the period that goes from the French Revolution (or American Revolution) to the present.
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    The Consulate

    In this period Napoleon was named consul creating an autocratic and authoritarian rule. They consolidated some of the revolutionary principles. Constitution of 1800 was established. There were economic reforms: Established a commercial code and created the Bank of France. More reforms were made, like: Creation of a civil code for all citizens, state schools (lycées), allowed the exiles to return and concordat with the Church.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte organized Coup of 18th Brumaire, supported by bourgeoisie and started an authoritarian rule. The French Revolution was over.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Napoleon approved the Constitution of 1800. It collected: The separation of powers, declaration of rights, limited liberties and the States were organized in departments run by prefers.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    In 1804, Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope and it took place in Notre-Dame in Paris.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1803, Napoleon and his troops began to contest Europe. A year later, he was crowned emperor by the Pope. The most European Monarchies were defeated: In Austerlitz they defeat Austria and Russia. Later, he conquered Spain (Joseph Bonaparte is proclaimed king). In 1811, France controlled the most of Europe (from Germany to Spain).
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    In 1808, Joseph Bonaparte was made king of Spain, after the Imperial armies invaded Spain.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holly Alliance Tresty

    Congress of Vienna and Holly Alliance Tresty
    In this Congress intervened the following countries: France, Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia. The objectives were: Stop the spread of liberal ideas and restore absolutism. The principles were: Legitimacy of absolute monarchs, denial of national sovereignty, balance of power and right of intervention. In consequent resulted the Holly Alliance Treaty (1815) the absolute monarchies of Europe united to stop the liberal revolutions.
  • Stephenson's Steam locomotive

    Stephenson's Steam locomotive
    Stephenson created the first steam locomotive in 1814. A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine. It was involved on the transport developments that occurred during the First Industrial Revolution, being a new transport system that could carry more passengers and goods. Link of the video:
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    In this battle, Napoleon´s armies were defeated by Great Britain and Prussia. He abdicated and was sent to exiled to Saint Helena.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    It was a period between 1815 and 1848 where absolute monarchs reunited to establish an absolutist monarchy in Europe.
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    Greek War of Independence

    Greeks wanted independence from the Ottoman Empire (that had been part of it during centuries) because they had to pay high taxes, they were excluded from State administration jobs and they felt dominated by people with different religion and culture. In 1822, Greeks recognized independence (but not by the Turks). In 1827 they received help from British and French military interventions and they victory. Finally, in 1830, it recognized independence.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    After the Congress of Vienna, two forces opposed to it appeared. Liberalism and nationalism emerged. Liberalism defended the fundamental rights and freedom of the people. Nationalism defended the rights of nations to have their own identity and sovereignty.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    The 1830 and 1848 revolutions ended with the absolutism that had begun in 1815. They represented democratic ideals and nationalistic aspirations.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    In 1815, Belgium was part of the Kingdom of Holland (by the Congress of Vienna) that then became the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The spread of liberal ideas helped the Belgian revolution and it became a liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
  • Zollverein

    It was a customs organization in 1834 when tariffs were abolished among the members of the German Confederation with the exception of Austria.
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    In this period, there was a rise of the liberalism and an expansion of nationalism that wanted that the independent nations were free from the control of absolutist empires. It happened because people lived under the rule of an empire (Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy).
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    French Second Republic

    Against the restored absolutism there was a popular uprising and the Second Republic was established. In this stage, there was an adoption of the following democratic mesures: Universal male suffrage, press freedom, abolition of the death penalty and certain rights for workers.
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    Enclosure Acts

    They were legislative acts with which the British Parliament favored the concentration and privatization of agrarian property (during the 18th century). This allowed the constitution of profitable agrarian companies that were oriented to the market. However, it harmed the small owners and day laborers.
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    Italian Unification process

    Italy was divided into many states and Austria annexed Lombardy-Venetia. In 1859, the liberal monarchy of Piedmont, ruled by Savory with Cavour as Prime Minister, started the unification. They declared the war on Austria and annexed Lombardy. A popular uprising led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and souther Italy. In 1861, Savoy proclaimed king of the country. In 1866, Austria left Venecia and in 1870 the Papal States were annexed and Rome became capital.
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    German Unification progress

    Germany was divided into 36 states, associated with the German Confederation (where Prussia and Austria were competing for power). In 1834, Prussia created a customs union (Zollverein). Then, in 1848, the 1st freely elected parliament offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia (who didn't accept it). In 1861, the King Wilhelm I and Otto von Bismarck (as chancellor) appeared as political figures. In 1871, the proclamation of the Second German Empire was proclaimed with Wilhelm as Kaiser.