Policies and politics

Timeline created by acadiatitone
  • NY: first zoning law

    Nation's first zoning law
  • US: Euclid v. Ambler

    SCOTUS upholds and enshrines zoning
  • US: creation of Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)

    Ushered in redlining
  • US: National Housing Act

    New Deal legislation that created the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) to insure new mortgages and reverse the impacts of the Great Depression
  • AR: Housing Authorities Act/Act 298

    Act 298 of 1937 created local Housing Authorities in the state and authorized local governmental units to enter into "cooperation agreements" as contemplated by the federal law. The Little Rock Housing Authority was the local public agency given the responsibility for initiating and carrying out urban redevelopment.
  • LR: 1937 bond proposal

    Voters approved bonds to fund LR's first Black park.
  • US: Wagner Housing Act

    authorized federal funds for public housing to be disbursed to local housing authorities; by 1941, 130,000 units of new low income housing had been developed in the US; slum clearance began in earnest
  • LR: WPA funding for Gillam Park

  • AR: Hogue v. Housing Authority of North Little Rock

    Attack on Act 298 of 1937
  • AR: Act 352 of 1941

    Arkansas Legislature extended the Housing Authority legislation to include rural areas
  • NY: Murray v. LaGuardia

    “If, upon completion of the project the public good is enhanced it does not matter that private interests may be benefited.”
  • US: GI Bill

    Serviceman's Readjustment Act created the Veteran's Administration, worked with FHA to funnel home loans to veterans; Black veterans were routinely denied access to FHA loans; GI Bill subsidized the first suburban booms
  • US: Housing Act of 1949

    Landmark bill that enabling federally funded slum clearance and urban redevelopment; boosting of FHA mortgage insurance; and fed commitment to build 810,000 public housing units within six years. Little Rock was one of the first cities in the nation to apply for and to obtain funds to study areas of slum and blight, and it was one of the first cities to formulate plans for their redevelopment.
  • LR: 1949 bond issue

    Voters passed a bond issue of $359,000 to pay for the development of Black recreation facilities.
  • US: Taft-Ellender-Wagner Housing Act

    authorization of massive program of urban redevelopment, more funding for public housing; housing administrators were forbidden to discriminate against welfare recipients (although racial discrimination was permitted); Title I of the 1949 Housing Act authorized cities to create Urban Redevelopment Authorities armed with powers of eminent domain to condemn blighted areas. They would acquire the properties, demolish the buildings, and resell the land, below cost, to private developers.
  • LR: Special election on urban renewal

    Black political leaders turned out the Black vote to vote in favor of urban renewal programs.
  • LR: Central Little Rock Urban Renewal Project begins

    Dunbar neighborhood underwent extensive revitalization beginning in May 1951 under the Urban Progress Association's Central Little Rock Urban Renewal Project. More than $2.2 million in federal money approved under Title I of the Housing Act of 1949 was spent on the effort. only the third of its kind approved under the 1949 Housing Act. By 1961 more than 214 houses had been torn down in the neighborhood.
  • LR: Rowe v. The Housing Authority of Little Rock

    Established that land in Dunbar neighborhood could be taken by the government via eminent domain and resold to private developers
  • AR: Booker Bill

    Legislature passed a law requiring that Booker High School (Granite Mountain) be incorporated into the Little Rock School District
  • AR: Booker Bill

    Legislature passed a law requiring that Booker High School (Granite Mountain) be incorporated into the Little Rock School District
  • US: 1954 Housing Act

    Urban redevelopment renamed "urban renewal"; continued slum clearance and development
  • US: Brown v. Board of Education

    Mandated desegregation of schools
  • US: Brown II

    Mandated school desegregation "with all deliberate speed"
  • US: Federal-Aid Highway Act

    Authorized the creation of the interstate system
  • US: 1964 Civil Rights Act

    Mandated desegregation of public facilities and accommodations
  • US: Housing and Urban Development Act

    authorized 60,000 new units of public housing a year for four years, more funds for urban renewal, and a new program of rent supplements for poor individuals to subsidize rents in private housing
  • US: Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Prohibited discriminatory voting laws, outlawed literacy tests, etc.
  • US: Fair Housing Act of 1968

    authorized 600,000 units of low-income housing for the next three years. In the first year, Congress appropriated money for only 100,000 units, still a sharp increase over previous years. It also set up two alternatives to traditional public housing: rent subsidies for limited dividend profit-making or nonprofit developments (Section 236) and an attempt to promote home ownership by mortgage payment subsidies (Section 235).
  • US: Community Development Act of 1974

    subsidy of private construction programs was renamed
    Section 8 and broadened