Spain.Restoration and Civil War

Timeline created by Mohamed Tanana
In History
  • Sandhurst Manifiesto

    Sandhurst Manifiesto
    On 1 December 1874, Cánovas wrote a manifiesto, signed in Sandhurst, where he promised a constitutional government.
  • PSOE is founded

    PSOE is founded
    The Spanish Socialist Workers Party(PSOE) was founded by Pablo Iglesias in 1879 and was consolidated by the huge surge in the labour movement during this period.
  • Bases de Manresa

    Bases de Manresa
    Catalan nationalism demanded official status for the Catalan language, the establishment of Catalan autonomy. In 1892, it proposals were declared in the Bases de Manresa, written by Prat de la Riba.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Spain was forced to sign the 1898 Treaty of Paris due to a conflicts where Spanish fleets were destroyed by the US. In this treaty they recognised the independence of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philipines.
  • Tragic Week of 1909

    Tragic Week of 1909
    Spanish occupation of its protectorate led to a war with the inhabitants of the Rif, a war that in 1909 required reservists to be called up the majority of whom were fathers. This set off violent protests in Barcelona, which known as the Tragic Week of 1909.
  • Disaster of Annual

    Disaster of Annual
    Abroad, Spain suffered a brutal defeat in the Rif War against Morroco in what was known as the Disaster of Annual, resulting in 10.000 deaths and widespread public commotion, negatively influencing public opinion.
  • Proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic

    Proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic
    Alfonso XIII tried to go back to the parliamentary system, however the citizens disapproval of the king’s support for the dictatorship led to significant Republican victories in the 1931 municipal elections for several major cities. The king went into exile on 14 April 1931 and the Second Republic was declared.
  • October Revolution

    October Revolution
    The new government halted the majority of the previous reforms, which led to an increase in strikes and more actions by left-wing parties. CEDA( the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right) tren demanded positions in the government. This sparked the October Revolution of 1934, which was most intense in Asturias and Barcelona.
  • Tragic Spring

    Tragic Spring
    Political violence reached its peak in what was known as the Tragic Spring of 1936, consisting of a wave of attacks and street violence between staunch falangist, communist and anarchist activists
  • Bombing of Gernika

    Bombing of Gernika
    The Civil War involved harsh battles, as reflected by the bombing of Gernika by the German air force’s Condor Legion on 26 April 1937.The German air force enabled the insurgents to control key industrial and mining areas.
  • End of the Civil War

    End of the Civil War
    The war then moved to the Mediterranean, where the insurgents intended to divide the Republican zone in two. But the republicans launched an offensive known as the Battle of the Ebro in 1938 that led to many casualties on both sides. The insurgents advanced, took Catalonia in 1939 and entered Madrid with no resistance. The Civil War ended on 1 April 1939.
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    Reign of Alfonso XII

    In 1875 the monarchy was restored under Alfonso XII of Bourbon(1875-1885), son of Isabella II. The Bourbon Restoration in Spain was made possible by two processes: through the political manoeuvring and through a pronunciamiento(military revolution).
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    Regency of Maria Christina

    After the death of Alfonso XII in 1885, the Restoration was maintained by the regency of Maria Christina(1885-1902) while her son, Alfonso XIII, was still a child.
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    Reign of Alfonso XIII

    Alfonso XIII acceded to the throne in 1902 in a political environment characterised by the crisis of Cánovas del Castillo’s political system, the influence of regenerationism and the deaths of Cánovas (1897) and Sagasta(1903).
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    Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera

    The General Primo de Rivera on 13 September 1923, imposed a dictatorship supported by the king. The dictatorship of Primo de Rivera went through two stages, which had two different governments.
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    Second spanish Republic

    After the Second Republic was proclaimed, a provisional government was formed, made up of Republicans, socialists and nationalists who held elections for the Constituent Cortes in June 1931.
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    Spanish Civil War

    The coup d’état began in Melilla, Tetuan and Ceuta on July 1936. The next day it spread throughout Spain, having success in rural areas, yet failing in the more industrialised urban areas. The country was divided into two zones, the Republican zone and the Nationalist zone, and the military coup turned into a long Civil War.