SPED Law/Time Line

Timeline created by mariahrj
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

    Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
    In Brown v. Board of Education, children argued that segregated public schools were inherently unequal and pride them of equal protection of the laws. “The U.S. Supreme Court found the African-American children have the right to equal educational opportunities and that segregated schools have no place in the field of public education” (wrightslaw.com). This was a big victory towards the advancement of equality for all.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA)

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA)
    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act, created in 1965, served to address the inequality of educational opportunity for underprivileged children. ESEA provided resources to help disadvantaged students with access to a quality education. This act was amended in 1966 to establish a grant program to help states with the initiation. Later the Elementary and Secondary Education Act was replaced with the Education of the Handicapped Act in the 1970s.
  • PARC and Mills

    PARC and Mills
    PARC and Mills were two cases that caused change. Pennsylvania Assn. for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (PARC) dealt with the exclusion of children with mental disabilities from public schools. The court ruled that denying access to some children was unconstitutional. Mills v. Board of Education of District of Columbia involved the practice of excluding children with disabilities. Courts claimed the Board of Education had an obligation to provide education for all students.
  • Congressional Investigation (1972)

    Congressional Investigation (1972)
    After the Supreme Court ruled on the cases of PARC and Mills, they launched an investigation and found out that millions of children with disabilities were not receiving an appropriate education. The findings of this investigation were appalling, more than 8 million children with special needs required special education and related services, and only 3.9 million of those children were receiving an appropriate education. After the investigation, Congress members issued a statement.
  • The Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    The Rehabilitation Act of 1973
    The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Rehab Act) prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. This was the first law to provide equal access for people with disabilities by removing architectural, employment, and transportation barriers. “Section 504 prohibits discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities by any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance” (www2.ed.gov).
  • Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)

    Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
    FAPE is the heart of special ed. and is guaranteed by the Rehab Act. There are three elements to FAPE; 1. “The educational services provided to the student are all provided at no cost to the family, 2. The education must be appropriate in that it allows the student to make progress in the general curriculum and is tailored and plans according to the students individual needs, and 3. The public education entity is responsible for educating students within its boundaries” (ascd.org).
  • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    The Education for All Handicapped Children Act
    The Education for All Handicapped Children Act, passed in 1975, was the first special education law for students with physical and mental disabilities. This law protected the rights of infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities, as well as the families of these individuals. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act states that public schools must provide children with special needs with the same opportunities for education as other children.
  • Individualized Education Programs (IEP)

    Individualized Education Programs (IEP)
    Individualized Education Programs were introduced into the school systems in 1975, and are often referred to as behavioral plans. IEP‘s make it so that every student with a disability has an equal opportunity to get the same education as any other student. IEP‘s are plans that explain the best way each student learns, how each student shows potential, and how to best support and encourage each students educational goals. All students with disabilities have IEP’s.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), created in 1990, ensures that children was disabilities throughout the nation receive appropriate free public education. “Congress reauthorized the IDEA in 2004 and most recently amended the IDEA through Public Law 114-95, the Every Student Succeeds Act, in December 2015” (sites.ed.gov).
  • DC Improved Special Education Laws

    DC Improved Special Education Laws
    “The district of Columbia Council has moved forward with three bills that will revamp special education in the city. The bills will work together to provide more information for parents of special needs students and to speed up the process of receiving services” (theedadvocate.org). This legislation will reduce the amount of time between a referral and when a evaluation must take place. The current 120-day mandate is the longest in the nation.