TaameenM's Mexican American War Timeline

Timeline created by MsOlson
In History
  • Period: to

    Mexican American War

  • Texas Admitted to the Union

    President John Tyler signs Congressional resolution to annex Texas
  • US Tried to Buy Land (Slidel and Polk)

    In James K Polk's inaugural speech, he talks about expanding the United States and "extending the dominions of peace"
  • Juan Almonte returns to Mexico

    In response to the annexation of Texas, Juan Almonte, ambassador to the US requests his passport and returns to Mexico.
  • General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna in exile

    Herrera allows General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to sail into exile.
  • Mexico does not recognize Texas independence or annexation

    Mexico does not recognize Texas independence or annexation
  • Texas accepts US offer of annexation

    Texas accepts US offer of annexation
    The Texas Congress accepts US offer of annexation.
  • Polk sends order to General Zachary Taylor

    Polk sends order to General Zachary Taylor
    Polk sends order to General Zachary Taylor to organize army in Corpus Christi, and to Commodore David Conner to prepare squadron in Gulf of Mexico.
  • Polk sends John Slidel

    Polk sends John Slidel with instructions to try to buy New Mexico and California.News of the mission is leaked to the Mexican press. The newspapers label President Herrera a traitor, claiming he is about to sell Mexico's northern territories. Fearing that public opinion is shifting against him, Herrera refuses to meet Slidell
  • Polk starts to build a case

    In his annual address to Congress, Polk starts to build a case that the U.S. may be forced to go to war with Mexico.
  • General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga ousts Herrera

    General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga ousts Herrera from the presidency. After making himself president, Paredes also refuses to meet with John Slidell.
  • John Slidell leaves Mexico

    John Slidell leaves Mexico
    John Slidell leaves Mexico without seeing President Paredes, leaving the U.S. and Mexico on the brink of war.
  • Taylor's army crosses the Rio Grande

    Taylor's army crosses the Rio Grande
    Taylor's army crosses the Rio Grande and occupies Matamoros.
  • General Taylor's army marches south

    General Taylor's army marches south
    General Taylor's army marches souh, past the Nueces River toward the Rio Grande, moving into disputed territory claimed by both Mexico and the U.S.
  • General Mariano Arista arrives in Matamoros

    General Mariano Arista arrives in Matamoros
    General Mariano Arista arrives in Matamoros to take command of Mexican army and sends cavalry to cross the Rio Grande. They surround a U.S. scouting party and several are killed during the skirmish
  • Taylor sends Polk a letter

    Taylor sends Polk a letter declaring that "hostilities have commenced."
  • Polk receives Taylor's letter

    Polk receives Taylor's letter and asks the U.S. Congress to declare war on Mexico. Congress approves $10 million and 50,000 volunteers for the war effort. Polk hopes the declaration will intimidate Mexico into resolving the Texas border issue and selling California and New Mexico to the U.S.
  • Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma

    Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma: Taylor's army wins both battles, ultimately driving the Mexicans back across the Rio Grande.
  • Colonel Stephen W. Kearny leads the Army of the West

    Colonel Stephen W. Kearny leads the Army of the West from Ft. Leavenworth, Kanas, toward New Mexico with orders to occupy the territory and then move onto California. New Mexico has become increasingly important commercially to the U.S. In 1846 more than $1 million worth of goods will pass through Santa Fe.
  • American settlers in California

    American settlers in California arrest Mexican politician Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo as part of what comes to be known as the "Bear Flag" revolt. The Americans write a constitution and declare California an independent republic.
  • Sensational news reports excite Americans

    Sensational news reports excite Americans about the war. Poet Walt Whitman, then the editor of the Brooklyn Eagle, writes "Yes: Mexico must be thoroughly chastisted!..Let our arms now be carried...America knows how to crush, as well as how to expand!"
  • Commodore John Sloat and the U.S. Pacific Squadron

    Commodore John Sloat and the U.S. Pacific Squadron occupy Monterey, California. The "Bear Flaggers" now raise the Stars and Stripes, declaring their allegiance to the United States.
  • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna returns from exile

    Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna returns from exile to once again lead Mexico.
  • Santa Anna reorganizes his army

    Santa Anna reorganizes his army in San Luis Potosi while Taylor's army marches toward Monterrey, Mexico.
  • Kearny, having occupied New Mexico

    Kearny, having occupied New Mexico despite some resistance, now leads an army to occupy California for the U.S. California is much coveted by the U.S. for many reasons, including its trade routes to Asia
  • Battle of Monterrey

    Battle of Monterrey: As part of his plan to cut off Northern Mexico, Taylor's army invades the city and defeats the force of General Pedro de Ampudia. Back at home, stories of Taylor's successes help the government recruit more troops.
  • Taylor's army marches deeper into Mexico and occupies Saltillo

    Taylor's army marches deeper into Mexico and occupies Saltillo.
  • Kearny arrives in California

    Kearny arrives in California and fights a battle against the Californios at San Pasqual.
  • Santa Anna is officially elected as Mexico's president

    Santa Anna is officially elected as Mexico's president with Valetin Gomez Farias as vice president.
  • U.S. troops reoccupy Los Angeles; Californios surrender

    U.S. troops reoccupy Los Angeles; Californios surrender.
  • General Winfield Scott takes command

    General Winfield Scott takes command of many of General Zachary Taylor's troops and prepares to attack Veracruz.
  • Santa Anna marches troops north

    Santa Anna marches troops north to meet Taylor in Saltillo.
  • The U.S. government continues its massive effort

    The U.S. government continues its massive effort to recruit more Americans to fight the war.
  • Civil revolt breaks out in Mexico City

    Civil revolt breaks out in Mexico City, forcing Santa Anna to return and solidify his hold on the government.
  • Battle of Buena Vista

    Battle of Buena Vista: Although Taylor's army is outnumbered by 15,00 to 5,000, its firepower defeats Santa Anna's troops and sends then retreating toward the south.
  • Santa Anna quells the civil revolt in Mexico City

    Santa Anna quells the civil revolt in Mexico City and then receives funds from the Catholic Church to continue the war against the U.S.
  • Scott's army makes an amphibious landing at Veracruz

    Scott's army makes an amphibious landing at Veracruz where it begins a 12-day siege of the city.Santa Anna is back in Mexico City dealing with the revolt and is unable to offer reinforcements. Scott's forces bombard Veracruz and ultimately occupy the city.
  • Santa Anna escapes to Orizaba and returns to Mexico City.

    Santa Anna escapes to Orizaba and returns to Mexico City.
  • Battle of Cerro Gordo

    Battle of Cerro Gordon: Although again greatly outnumbered, Scott's army batters Santa Anna's forces, opening a clear path to Mexico City.
  • Scott occupies Puebla

    Scott occupies Puebla and is joined by diplomat Nicholas Trist, who has been sent by Polk to try and negotiate a peace with Mexico.
  • Scott marches into Valley of Mexico

    Scott marches into Valley of Mexico
  • Battle of Contreras and Churubusco

    Battle of Contreras and Churubusco: In the 17-minute Battle of Contreras, Scott's army kills 700 Mexican soldiers while taking 813 prisoners. Later in the same day, both sides take heavy losses at the Battle of Churubusco, but ultimately Scott's forces prevail and Santa Anna's army is left decimated.
  • Nicholas Trist meets with Mexican negotiators

    Nicholas Trist meets with Mexican negotiators. Even though his army is badly beaten, Santa Anna will offer only minor concessions that are unsastifactory to the Americans. The war continues...
  • Battle of Molino de Rey

    Battle of Molino de Rey: While again outnumbered, Scott's troops win another battle on the outskirts of Mexico City.
  • Battle of Mexico City

    Battle of Mexico City: Mexican soldiers try to hold the Castle of Capultepec in the face of 14 hours of American shelling. Unable to get reinforcements, the Mexicans finally succumb.
  • U.S. Army occupies Mexico City

    U.S. Army occupies Mexico City.
  • Santa Anna is stripped of military command

    Santa Anna is stripped of military command and resigns the presidency. He flees in exile to Jamaica.
  • Trist receives recall orders from Polk

    Trist receives recall orders from Polk but refuses to return to Washington. Trist get support from new Mexican President Pena y Pena, who fears that without negotiations Mexico will lose all of its territories. Communication is so slow between Mexico City and Washington that Trist is emboldened to complete the negotiations.
  • James Marshall discovers gold at Sutter's Mill in California

    James Marshall discovers gold at Sutter's Mill in California, triggering a huge population shift in the U.S. While many gain riches from the Gold Rush, long time residents of the land, the Californios, will be greatly restricted by the Foreign Miners' Tax.
  • Representing the American anti-war side

    Representing the American anti-war side, former slave Frederick Douglass writes "Mexico seems a doomed victim to Anglo-Saxon... love of dominion.... The determination of our slaveholding President to prosecute the war, and the probability of his success... is made evident...by the puny opposition arrayed against him."
  • Trist and Mexican negotiators settle on a peace agreement

    Trist and Mexican negotiators settle on a peace agreement whereby the U.S. will pay Mexico $15 million and receive California, New Mexico and maintain the border of Texas at the Rio Grande. Mexicans in these territories will be able to become U.S. citizens
  • Negotiators sign Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Negotiators sign Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; treaty is rushed to Washington.
  • The treaty is ratified by U.S. Senate

    The treaty is ratified by U.S. Senate
  • Treaty ratified by Mexican Congress

    Treaty ratified by Mexican Congress.