THE INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICAThe independence of Latin America was the historical process of the
rebellion of its inhabitants against Spanish colonial rule and the formation of
independent national states.
CAUSES OF LATIN AMERICA INDEPENDENCEEconomic.
The Bourbon reforms drowned the economy of the
colonies by preventing intraregional trade and imposing excessive
THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDSQuito was to be the first in the history of
Spanish America to proclaim, on August 10, 1809, a government of its own,
not appointed by the Crown
FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCEThe Spanish authorities fiercely repressed the first of the cities to form a
Sovereign Junta. They tried to prevent the contagion.
5. HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGOFrançois Dominique Toussaint-Louverture took charge of a slave revolt on
the French side of the island of Hispaniola and led it between 1793 and 1802.
MEXICAN INDEPENDENCEThe priest Miguel Hidalgo was placed in front of the Indians and
peasants and launched, as we saw, the "cry of independence" in the
town of Dolores.
CENTRAL AMERICAChiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence
from the Spanish Crown (15-09-1821) and, shortly after, annexed Mexico to
defend itself better from Spain
INDEPENDENCE OF CUBAJosé Martí organizes the Cuban Revolutionary Party and looks for the old leaders of the revolution, unifies the different currents, builds a small army, and disembarks in Cuba.
THE CASE OF PUERTO RICOOn September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against
Spain, was produced.
BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCEWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and
later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base
of the Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve.
INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICAWhen Fernando VII returned to the throne in 1814, patriotic military campaigns subsisted in Venezuela and the Río de la Plata. In the first, Simón Bolívar -Member of the Caraqueña boards of 1811- was named new military leader.
NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELAMorillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818.
INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADORLet us remember how the independence of Guayaquil was proclaimed (9-10-1820), the arrival of the patriot army commanded by Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated the independence of the Great Colombia.
ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAYThe first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-051810) organized three military campaigns to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful. However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion (14-05-1811), and the resulting government-held independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay was created.
INDEPENDENCE OF CHILESan Martin was not discouraged and decided to continue with his plans, only now he first had to liberate Chile. For that he spent years making weapons, bullets and all kinds of equipment, and organizing
the Army of the Andes.
PERUThe priest Miguel Hidalgo was placed in front of the Indians and peasants and launched, as we saw, the "cry of independence" in the town of Dolores.
SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVARIn their meetings in Guayaquil (26 and 27- 07-1822), Bolivar, liberator, and
president of Gran Colombia, and San Martín, protector of Peru, talked about what
was missing to complete the freedom of America
END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCEIn 1823, Bolívar was authorized by the Congress of the Gran Colombia to take command of an expedition to Peru. In September of that year
vocabularyBen / bow down: Make someone give up on one purpose and lend
5. Accouterments: additional items of dress or equipment.