William S. BurroughsDynamic writer throughout career (straightforward, then fragmented, political undertones and subversion, and finally a mature culmition into fiction) Ken Kesey was a huge admirerer Famous works: Red Trilogy, Queer, and Naked Lunch Gained inspiration from a state of limbo (waiting for discharge from army...undertook many odd jobs and gained interesting perspective)
The Beat GenerationA bunch of disgruntled post WWII writers that were angry about the growing materialism and conformity in a America. They saught the deregulation of ideas through experimentation in drugs, sex, and writing.
World War II endsThe end of World War II left many questioning mainstream values, including styles of literature and poetry. This led to the defying of conventional writing, beginning the Beat period. Other influences in Beat writing include Romanticism and Surrealism.
Neal Cassady introduced to Beat group in New York CityCassady had a unique style that inspired the spontaneous, jazz-inspired rapping that became a signature verbal style of the beats
Jack Kerouac coins the term "Beat Generation"
Allen Ginsberg arrestedGinsberg was arrested for being pulled over and having a car full of stolen items. He pleaded insanity. Criminal behavior was common among the beats.
Allen Ginsberg falls in love with Peter OrlovskyThis love inspires the poem Howl
Six Gallery readingPhilip Lamantia, Michael McClure, Philip Whalen, Allen Ginsberg and Gary Snyder read in front of an audience in San Francisco. It is known as the first important public manifestation of the Beat Generation.
Lawrence Ferlinghetti publishes Howl and Other Poems, by Allen GinsbergA year after this was published, Ferlinghetti was brought to trial for "obscenity." The piece was ruled "not-obscene," bringing Beat poetry to national attention.
Jack Kerouac's On the Road is publishedOn the Road is a largely autobiographical novel. It is based on the road trips Kerouac used to take with his friends.
BeatnikHerb Caen coins the term "beatnik" in the San Francisco chronicle. It became a term used to refer to people who were far off from mainstream society and therefore possibly pro-Communist.
a) Considered father of the beat movement, spontaneous writing, often inspired by jazz
b) Also took inspiration from Buddhist texts
c) Improvised words over the inherent structures of mind and language, and not editing a single word
d) Wrote in mostly plainspeaking prose, subject to criticism from many, namely Truman Capote
e) Wrote mostly in English, however wrote some fiction in French Influences
a) Jazz, Bebob, Buddhism (Diamond Sutra text), James Joyce,
Jack Kerouac (cont.)Legacy
A) “King of beats” - he was largely uncomfortable with this title
A) football player in college
B) Honorably discharged from navy on psychiatric grounds
C) Manic writer Most famous works
On the road, Doctor Sax, The Dharma Bums …all of which are novels
Irwin Allen Ginsberg- (1926-1997)Style
-opposed militarism, materialism, and sexual repression
-criticizes capitalism and conformity
-intensely personal poetry
-believed literature should come from the soul without conscious restrictions.
-breath technique (reading each line should take only one breath) Influences
-heavily inspired by Kerouac’s spontaneous prose
-Despite jewish roots, ginsberg became a practicing Buddhist and applied many concepts to poetry
Irwin Allen Ginsberg- (1926-1997) (cont.)Legacy
-many consider him to be the leader of the beats (all members of generation all have in common sharing ginsberg’s acquaintance Works
Howl, Empty Mirror, Reality Sandwiches