The History of FCS Timeline

Timeline created by abenham2
  • First Temperature Controlling Range (Stove)

    First Temperature Controlling Range (Stove)
    The first range with temperature controls was invented by Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford). He was the first to label nutrition as a science and he was also a brilliant inventor (Sartain). His range was revolutionary. It was a stove that had a single heat source but could heat multiple pots/pans for cooking. You could also control the temperature of the stove and also keep your house warm (Bramen). (Picture - "Count Rumford, Benjamin Thompson, Anglo-American Physicist")
  • "A Treatise on Domestic Economy" (Published)

    "A Treatise on Domestic Economy" (Published)
    This was the first FACS textbook written by Catharine Beecher, a key person in the FACS realm. She was a teacher & writer in the 19th century who strived for equal access to education for women as well as their roles as teachers and mothers. "A Treatise on Domestic Economy" expanded on these beliefs and educated young women about intellectual teaching positions (Michals). It was the first FACS textbook that was recognized by the department of education (Sartain). (Picture - Wigington)
  • Morrill Act of 1862

    Morrill Act of 1862
    It was established by Vermont Senator Justin Morrill. One said, "the Federal Government granted each state 30,000 acres of land for Congress". Selling this land would help fund building colleges and universities (Land Grant Universities), as well as funding existing ones (Miller). There are even Land Grant Universities in Arkansas, such as the U of A and U of A Pine Bluff (Gavazzi). It also gave farmers and working people a chance for higher education ("Home"). (Picture - Morrill)
  • The Great Sanitary Survey

    Conducted by Ellen Swallow Richards, this survey modernized municipal sewerage treatment. It helped develop the first water purity tables and quality water standards (“The History of Family and Consumer Sciences Timeline”).
  • Invention of the Bomb Calorimeter

    Invention of the Bomb Calorimeter
    The Bomb Calorimeter was invented by W.O. Atwater, who was considered to be "the Father of Nutrition" (Sartain). He was interested to see the caloric value of foods, so he developed a 4-9-4 method mechanism to test his theory. The Bomb Calorimeter is an apparatus that measures the heat of combustion, which helps calculate caloric value ("Bomb Calorimeter"). His Bomb Calorimeter was a revolutionary tool in the Nutrition realm and still holds value today. (Picture - Nichols)
  • Second Morrill Act

    This act was important not only for FACS but also for individuals of other ethnical backgrounds. This Act forbade racial discrimination in admissions policies for colleges receiving federal funds (from the First Morrill Act). This helped establish land grant institutions for African Americans (“Read "Colleges of Agriculture at the Land Grant Universities: A Profile" at NAP.edu").
  • Beginning of the American Public School Lunch Program

    Beginning of the American Public School Lunch Program
    Created by Ellen Swallow Richards, who was a pioneer for FACS. She was an MIT graduate and chemistry faculty member who believed science could improve people's health and well-being (Sartain). This program was revolutionary. Kids would pay one penny to have lunch at school rather than going hungry or having to leave. This allowed the students to have a nutritious meal with a convenience factor (Olver). (Picture - “Ellen Swallow Richards”)
  • First Lake Placid Conference

    First Lake Placid Conference
    This was the first conference that was held to discuss home economics education. Ellen Richards was deemed as the president and the profession was ultimately defined as "Home Economics" (Sutori). (Picture - Sutori)
  • Practical Education Beyond the 8th Grade (becomes established)

    The state support grows for practical education beyond the 8th grade. It expanded to include vocational education. This helped people who wanted to grow in the FACS department (especially women) (“The History of Family and Consumer Sciences Timeline”).
  • American Home Economics Association (Established)

    Founded by Ellen Swallow Richards. The purpose was "To improve the quality and standards of individual and family life through education, research, cooperative programs, and public information". Richards wanted to model the actions after her own beliefs (aka to improve quality of life).
  • Smith-Lever Act

    Smith-Lever Act
    Key Act Passed for the development of FCS. It created the Cooperative Extension Service, which included FACS (Sartain). It educated Americans about advances in agricultural and technological advances. It helped Americans with agriculture productivity well into the 20th century (“The Smith-Lever Act of 1914”). (Picture - “Apron Strings and Kitchen Sinks”)
  • "Food for Young Children" (Published)

    "Food for Young Children" (Published)
    Written by Caroline Hunt, who collected many dietary histories and socioeconomic information throughout her life. She published many nutrition books and this is only one of them (Sartain). It was the first USDA food guide that focused on children's nutritional needs. In this text, foods were divided into five groups: cereals, fruits/vegetables, meat/milk, fats, and sugar ("LibGuides: Food and Nutrition.."). Many of the statements in this text are still applied today. (Picture - "Caroline Hunt")
  • Smith-Hughes Act

    Smith-Hughes Act
    This Act helped establish FACS as part of the Vocational Education (Sartain). This act funded teacher training and salaries. It allowed for more education on agriculture. It helped bring federal-funding to local communities. One said, "If Smith-Hughes didn’t exist, technology programs, family and consumer science and business classes wouldn’t exist either" (Mumaw). (Picture - “1917 - Smith Hughes Act”)
  • American Dietetic Association (Founded)

    Created by 58 individuals who felt the need for people educated in nutritional science and trained in the art of feeding people. It was dedicated to helping the government conserve food and also improving the public's health (with nutrition) during WWI (Sartain).
  • Vocational Education Act of 1963

    This act gave grants to states to develop, improve, and maintain vocational programs. This included constructing schools in certain areas for vocational education, office education, occupational training (for possible school dropouts), and work-study programs. This act basically wanted to secure the statements made in the George-Barden and Smith-Hughes (which focused on employment in vocational agriculture, home economics, and industrial education) ("Vocational Education").
  • Vocational Amendment of 1968

    This act gave the same benefits as the VA of 1963, with some additional benefits. In addition to the things stated, each state had to submit a plan containing administrative policies & procedures as well as an annual & 5-year program plan. Part of the funds given were administered to permanent programs in vocational education as well as FACS education. The remaining funds were given to training & research in curriculum development and training (“The Vocational Education Amendments of 1968”).
  • Vocational (Rehabilitation) Amendment of 1973

    The purpose of this act was, "To extend and revise grants to states for vocational rehabilitation services, with special emphasis on helping and providing service to individuals with the most severe disabilities". It also expanded federal responsibilities, research programs, and training programs to individuals with disabilities. It helped to create a bond between state vocational rehabilitation programs and workforce investment activities (“The Rehabilitation Act").
  • Vocational Amendment of 1976

    This act helped to defeat gender discrimination, provide special applications/sources for the disadvantaged, provide special funding to the FACS department, and create a program evaluation every five years. It was very important to minorities, especially women. In the rise of feminism, it allowed for a more equal "playing-field" (“Please wait...").
  • Carl Perkins Act

    Carl Perkins Act
    The Act states, "Individuals who are members of special populations must be provided with equal access to recruitment, enrollment, and placement activities in vocational education". This means that they were able to provide education to those who have not been taken care of properly or those who have greater (than average) educational needs (i.e. the disabled, disadvantage, or limited English understanding) ("NASET.org Home Page").
    (Picture - “Perkins, Carl Dewey”)
  • Name Change to FACS

    In 1994, the American Home Economics Association changed the name of the profession to Family and Consumer Science. Personally, I believe that this change was made so that the profession seemed more diverse in nature. It made it seem like more than just cooking and home-making. It brought to light the many jobs that FACS offers and how it is more than just a home-ec label (Sartain).