Timeline #2 Baroque

Timeline created by David_Ayers
  • Period:

    Claudio Monteverdi

    Trained in the Renaissance style, also adept at composing “modern” music
    Used dissonances in his music (madrigals) for text expression
    Seconda prattica: monody with dissonance – very expressive
    1590: Became court composer for the Duke of Mantua, wrote L’Orfeo (1607)
    Later became the choirmaster at St. Mark’s Cathedral in Venice
    Final opera: The Coronation of Poppea (1642)
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    Francesca Caccini

    Soprano and the daughter of Giulio Caccini
    The first woman to compose operas
    Was almost employed by the King of France but was bought out by the Medici family – became the highest paid musica in Italy by age 20
    Highly praised for her soprano voice and her ability to play any string instrument well – also harpsichord
  • Invention of Opera

    First opera: Dafne (1597) composed by Giulio Caccini and Jacopo Peri
    First extant opera, also by Caccini and Peri: Euridice (1600)
    Inventors of opera = the Italian composers Caccini and Peri
  • A new Singing style

    Monody: sung melody (in Italian text) with basso continuo
    Termed the seconda prattica (second practice)
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    Early Baroque style

    Caccini’s Publication of 1601
    Monody: secunda prattica
    Basso continuo part
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    Barbara Strozzi

    Mother was a servant to Giulio Strozzi who adopted Barbara
    Studied under Francesco Cavalli at the Accademia degli Unisoni – founded by Giulio for Barbara
    Published eight sets of songs – the first in 1644
    Each set dedicated to a different wealthy patron
    Did not write opera but her songs and cantatas are very dramatic
  • Opera gains popularity

    The first public opera theater opened in Venice in 1637
    1640s: Arias became the most desired and appreciated pieces
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    Louis the 14th of France

    Notice that in all pictures of the king his legs are prominent – he was an accomplished dancer and showed them off
    Louis XIV loved dancing: was an excellent dancer from age 13 – notice the legs again
    Believed that ballet demonstrated important qualities of a society: discipline, order, refinement, and restraint
    Dancing was a ritualized demonstration of social hierarchy
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    Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber

    Bohemian-Austrian composer and violinist
    Lived in Salzburg
    One of the most important composers for the violin, especially in the instrument’s early years
    Catholic sacred music, violin sonatas, and ensemble music
    Biber’s new technique of playing the violin allowed him to easily:
    reach 6th and 7th positions
    play double stops and polyphony
    experiment with scordatura
    Biber: Sonata No. 1 (ca. 1676)
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    Opera in England

    During the Commonwealth (1649-60) stages plays were forbidden in England because the Puritans thought theater was an invention “of the devil”
    Composers began setting the plays to music
    Masques: a type of theatrical entertainment that combined vocal and instrumental music with poetry and dance
    August 1660: Charles II issued patents for two companies of players (theatre troupes) and performances immediately began
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    Usually secular
    In Italian
    Composed for 1 or 2 singers with basso continuo and possibly a small string ensemble
    By the middle Baroque, new genres emerged:
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    Arcangelo Corelli

    Italian composer
    trio sonata
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    Henry Purcell

    Singer, organist, composer of instrumental and vocal music
    Worked in the court of Charles II (reigned 1660-85) when stage plays were again allowed
    Dido and Aeneas (1689)
    Purcell assimilated the musical styles of Europe:
    Italian operatic style
    Grand aspects of French music
    The lyric melodic quality of English song
    Wrote incidental music for plays
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    Alessandro Scarlatti

    The father of composer Domenico Scarlatti
    A teacher in Naples; many of his students helped create the new classical style
    His death marks a better indicator of the end of the Baroque than does Bach’s in 1750
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    Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre

    She was called “the wonder of our century.”
    The 17th century: French
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    François Couperin

    French composer
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    Antonio Vivaldi

    He was called the red priest because of his red hair
    Music director at the Pieta, an orphanage for girls in Venice
    Composed many operas, much sacred music, and many instrumental works
    Popular during the height of his career (1720s)
    Wrote nearly 800 concertos of various types:
    60 ripieno concertos
    425 concerto grosso types
    350 solo concertos
    45 double concertos (mostly for 2 violins) Considered the greatest master of the Baroque concerto
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    Late Baroque

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    Georg Philip Telemann

    Telemann was extraordinarily prolific

    Composed more than 125 orchestral suites
    Helped establish the French-style orchestral suite in Germany
    Published a collection called “Tafelmusik” (1733)
    Friends with J. S. Bach and the godfather of Bach’s eldest son, Carl Philipp Emanuel (1714-88), an important composer of the 18th century
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    Jean-Joseph Mouret

    One representative composer from this French court: served the son of King Louis XIV
    Composed operas, suites, and “grand divertissements [entertainments]”
    Some of his works have been used for TV commercials and in other media
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    Domenico Scarlatti

    Keyboard virtuoso
    Served Portuguese and Spanish royal families
    Had a progressive style; aware of his modern flare
    Wrote over 500 sonatas for harpsichord, operas, cantatas, and keyboard exercises
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    G. F. Handel

    Two very popular orchestral suites:
    Music for the Royal Fireworks (often referred to as just Fireworks)
    Water Music
    A German composer living in England writing Italian music
    Extraordinarily talented and intelligent
    Virtuoso organist
    Messiah (1742)
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    J. S. Bach

    Contrapunctus 1 from The Art of Fugue (1749)
    He wrote this collection at the end of his life, and it was not published (1751) until after his death (1750)
    Bach is undisputedly the greatest master of the fugue
    The art of Fugue
    Bach was one of the most skilled musicians in the Baroque