Timeline of Cuban Independence Movement

Timeline created by savagetrout
In History
  • First War of Independence

    First War of Independence
    1868–1878 Fed up with high taxes, restricted trade, and the lack of native Cubans in government, Cubans under revolutionary leader Maj. Gen. Calixto Garcia fight for independence from Spain in the Ten Years War. They fail to win independence in the long, bloody war. In the Treaty of Zanjón, Spain promised Cubans more representation in government and reforms, but failed to deliver.
  • The "Little War"/La Guerra Chiquita

    The "Little War"/La Guerra Chiquita
    1879–1880 Rebels launch a second bid for independence in the "Little War," which is also led by Maj. Gen. Calixto Garcia. Their resources depleted from the Ten Years War, the rebels suffered defeat.
  • Third War of Independence Begins

    Third War of Independence  Begins
    1895 Under the leadership of poet José Martí­ and Gen. Máximo Gómez y Báez rebels begin another revolt against Spanish rule. Martí killed in first battle.
  • U.S."Yellow Journalism" Leads to War

     U.S."Yellow Journalism" Leads to War
    Under Spanish general Valeriano Weyler, the Spanish military forced Cuba's rural population into concentration camps, where thousands died from disease, starvation, and exposure. This, along with the toll the uprising was taking on U.S. investment in Cuba, "yellow journalism" exaggerating the atrocities committed by Spain in Cuba, and the strategic importance of the island, led the U.S. to consider intervention.
  • The Spanish American War. U.S. Neocolonialsm Begins

    The Spanish American War. U.S. Neocolonialsm Begins
    1898 The Spanish-American War begins shortly after the sinking of the battleship Maine in Havana harbor. In a short war, the U.S. defeats Spain, which cedes control of Cuba to the U.S. The U.S. military begins its occupation of the island
  • The Platt Amendment

    The Platt Amendment
    1901 The Platt Amendment, part of an army appropriations bill, established the conditions that U.S. could intervene in Cuba and allowed the U.S. to lease land to create a naval base in Cuba.
  • First U.S. Occupation Ends

    First U.S. Occupation Ends
    1902 The U.S. ends its military occupation of Cuba. Cuba becomes an independent republic with Estrada Palma as its first president.
  • Second U.S. Occupation

    Second U.S. Occupation
    1906 José Miguel Gómez leads an uprising in Cuba against President Estrada Palma. The tumult prompts the U.S. to occupy Cuba. Charles Magoon, an American attorney, serves as governor of Cuba
  • Black Cubans Revolt. U.S. Military Returns

    Black Cubans Revolt. U.S. Military Returns
    1912 Black Cubans rise up and protest against discrimination. The U.S. military returns to Cuba to quell the uprising.
  • Machado Increases Repression

    Machado Increases Repression
    1927 President Machado becomes increasingly repressive and several insurgent groups challenge him.
  • Machado Ousted. Batista Takes Control.

    Machado Ousted. Batista Takes Control.
    1933 Under pressure from the Cuban military and the U.S. government, President Machado resigns. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes becomes provisional president, but he is ineffectual and overthrown in a student-led coup led by Sgt. Fulgencio Batista. The uprising is called the "sergeant's revolt.". Batista becomes head of the army and in that capacity, the de facto leader of Cuba.
  • Batista Consolidates Corrupt Power

    Batista Consolidates Corrupt Power
    1940 Democratic elections are held, and Batista wins the presidency. He implements a new constitution but runs a corrupt police state. Makes alliance with U.S. Mafia to share profits of gambling, prostitution, drugs, alcohol, and other criminal activities.
  • Batista Stages Another Coup. Castro Turns to Revolution

    Batista Stages Another Coup. Castro Turns to Revolution
    1952 With the backing of the army, Fulgencio Batista orchestrates another coup. Cancels elections in which Fidel Castro had a chance of winning office. Castro turns to violent revolution. Batista becomes increasingly repressive during his second term of office.
  • Castro Attacks Moncada Barracks

    Castro Attacks Moncada Barracks
    1953 Fidel Castro leads an armed uprising against Batista regime. Unsuccessfully attacks Moncada Barracks. Fidel and others are imprisoned, more than 70 tortured and killed.
  • Castro Released from Prison

    Castro Released from Prison
    1955 General amnesty brokered by Catholic Church leads to release from Isle of Pines Prison. Fidel, Raúl, and others leave for Mexico to plan next phase of Revolution.
  • Castro Launches Guerrilla War

    Castro  Launches Guerrilla War
    1956 Fidel Castro and Ernesto "Che" Guevara join forces in what they called the 26th of July Movement and launch a guerilla war against Batista's repressive regime.Their landing in Cuba is discovered by Batista and all but 12 are killed. They reunite and begin to build strength, numbers, and organization among country people and urban revolutionaries.
  • The Revolution Triumphs

    The Revolution Triumphs
    1959 Guerrilla fighters led by Castro drive Batista out of Cuba. Castro becomes prime minister, his brother Raul Castro is named minister of the armed forces, and Guevara is third in command. within a few months, Castro established military tribunals for political opponents and jailed hundreds.