HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGOFrançois Dominique Toussaint-Louverture took charge of a slave revolt on
the French side of the island of Hispaniola and led it between 1793 and 1802.
He faced Spanish, English, and French, until his capture, exile, and death in
France. In 1803, Jean Jacques Dessalines finally defeated the French
troops and, in 1804, declared the independence of Haiti.
The independence in Latin AmericaThe independence of Latin America was the historical process of the
rebellion of its inhabitants against Spanish colonial rule and the formation of
independent national states. It began with the proclamation of Sovereign
Boards in 1809. Some of them - especially the first that of Quito - were
repressed by fire and blood by the Spanish authorities. The process
continued until it became a true continental war.
Causes of Latín América IndependenceEconomic: The Bourbon reforms drowned the economy of the
colonies by preventing intraregional trade and imposing excessive
Social: was resentment over the prerogatives of the Spaniards. The
disputes between Spaniards and creoles for management positions
extended to all areas.
Ideological: The forerunners of independence became aware of the
differences between the colonies and the metropolis,
Influence of US independence and the French Revolution.
To the causes, we must add
THE LACK OF A KING, OCCASION OF AMERICAN BOARDSWhen proclaiming the Sovereign Boards, the
South American Creoles held three theses:
The rejection of Napoleon's claims to
America, the loyalty to Ferdinand VII and,
most importantly, the illegitimacy of both
Joseph Bonaparte and the colonial
authorities appointed by the Spanish king,
who no longer had any power. Quito was to be the first in the history of
Spanish America to proclaim, on August 10, 1809, a government of its own,
not appointed by the Crown.
ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY, AND URUGUAYThe first Junta de Buenos Aires (25-051810) organized three military campaigns
to subdue the Spanish forces in the interior, but they were not successful.
However, a revolution spontaneously broke out in Asuncion (14-05-1811), and
the resulting government-held independent. This is how the Republic of Paraguay
In the Banda Oriental, the rural population rose against the Spanish authorities in
Montevideo. Colonel José Artigas commanded the revolutionary troops
FROM THE BOARDS TO THE WARS OF INDEPENDENCEThe Spanish authorities fiercely repressed the first of the cities to form a
Sovereign Junta. They tried to prevent the contagion. After the defeat, the armies of Lima and
Bogota occupied the city, and a year later, on August 2, 1810, they murdered
300 patriots and citizens, which shook entire America. But the
reaction of the Spaniards led to
the polarization of the positions
and the creole elites multiplied,
since 1811, the proclamation,
without ambages (plainly)of
MEXICAN INDEPENDENCEThe priest Miguel
Hidalgo was placed in
front of the Indians and
peasants and launched,
as we saw, the "cry of
independence" in the
town of Dolores.The command
was taken by another priest, José Maria Morelos, who led the second stage
of the revolution (1811-1815). He introduced a liberal state and agrarian
reform. But he had him shot in 1815.Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was proclaimed
president of the Republic in 1833 Spain only recognized Mexican
independence in 1839.
THE INDEPENDENCE OF SOUTH AMERICAWhen Fernando VII returned to the throne in 1814,patriotic military campaigns subsisted in Venezuela and the Río de la Plata. In the
first, Simón Bolívar -Member of the Caraqueña boards of 1811- was named new military leader, and in 1813 he liberated Mérida and Caracas in the so-called Admirable Campaign, cities that gave him the title of "Liberator", united forever to his first name. It
was the greatest force that would leave Spain in the course of the war.
NEW GRANADA AND VENEZUELAMorillo soon resumed control of Venezuela and New Granada. But, in 1817,
Bolívar, Piar, Páez, and other Venezuelan leaders reactivated the war. Bolivar
faced and defeated Morillo in Calabozo, in 1818. However, later, Morillo
counterattacked and defeated Bolivar in the valley of Aragua.
One more year of skirmishes and Morillo and Bolívar sign the War
Regularization Treaty (27-11-1820), which ends the "War to Death" period.
INDEPENDENCE OF CHILESan Martin was not discouraged and decided to continue with his plans, only now he first had to liberate Chile. For that he spent years making weapons, bullets and all
kinds of equipment, and organizing the Army of the Andes. The
crossing was epic, but, as they had
planned, the six columns met less
than a month later in the Aconcagua Valley and although it suffered a serious defeat in Cancha Rayada (19-03-1818), it triumphed in the decisive battle of Maipú (5-04-1818), assuring
PERUTogether with O'Higgins, and with 200,000 pesos that he obtained from Buenos Aires, San Martín managed to buy a naval squadron to attack the Spaniards in Peru by sea. San Martin sailed from Valparaíso (20-08-1820) with a fleet of eight warships and 16 transport ships, and 4,500 men from the armies of the Andes and Chile. It
disembarked in Pisco (8-09-1820), and forced the realistic army to retreat towards
the mountain range.
integrated by Venezuelans and Quiteños
INDEPENDENCE OF ECUADORLet us remember how the independence of Guayaquil was
proclaimed (9-10-1820), the arrival of the patriot army commanded by Antonio José de Sucre, and its triumph in Pichincha (24-05-1822), which culminated the independence of the Great Colombia.
Let us remember, also, that Bolivar defeated
the royalist pastures in the battle of
Bomboná, and entered triumphant Quito (16-06-1822) and, later, he waited for
the president of Peru, General José de San Martín, to discuss the strategy
CENTRAL AMERICAGuatemala with its provinces: (Chiapas, Soconusco, El Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, Los Altos, and Costa Rica) declared its independence
from the Spanish Crown (15-09-1821)
Provinces of the Center of America: being its capital city of Guatemala.
However, local oligarchies promoted separation. This led to a civil war (1838-
1840), in which Guatemala could not prevail.
Panama: belonged to the Viceroyalty of New Granada and, therefore,
became independent along with Colombia.
BRAZIL: MONARCHICAL INDEPENDENCEWhen Napoleon invaded Portugal, Juan VI took refuge in Brazil (1807) and
later promoted a legal reform (1815) by declaring Brazil as the territorial base
of the "Empire of Brazil, Portugal, and the Algarve".
. In 1831 he abdicated and was
succeeded by his son, Pedro II, who reigned until 1889 when the first
republic was proclaimed.
SAN MARTIN AND BOLIVARIn their meetings in Guayaquil (26 and 27- 07-1822), Bolivar, liberator, and president of Gran Colombia, and San Martin, protector of Peru, talked about what was missing to complete the freedom of America: the defeat of the last realistic bastion in Peru.
Surprisingly, San Martin gave Bolivar the initiative of the war
completely. He returned to Lima, resigned from the government of Peru (20-
091822), and returned to his home in Mendoza, Argentina (01-1823).
. END OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCEIn 1823, Bolívar was authorized by the Congress of the Gran
Colombia to take command of an expedition to Peru. In
September of that year, he arrived in Lima and met with
Sucre and the Peruvian leaders to plan the attack. Bolivar and Sucre defeated the Spanish army at the Battle of Junín (6-08-1824).
Four months later, while Bolivar had gone to Lima to raise more money and
receive a new contingent of troops, Sucre was forced to give battle and destroyed
the last bastion of the Spanish army
THE CASE OF PUERTO RICOOn September 23, 1868, the scream of Lares, of independence against Spain, was produced. The rebellion is crushed in a short time. Puerto Rico continues within the Spanish system until the war between EE. UU and Spain. After the defeat of this, the island of Puerto Rico happens to be administered by EE. UU and is currently an associated free state of that country. Consequently, it is not an independent country.
INDEPENDENCE OF CUBAJosé Martí organizes the Cuban Revolutionary Party and looks for the oldleaders of the revolution,unifies the different currents, builds a smallarmy, and disembarks in Cuba.
Martí dies in one ofthe combat actions (1895), but the revolutionary army continues to fight.
The intervention of EE. UU precipitated the Spanish
defeat and Cuba proclaimed its independence in 1899, although it suffered the American occupation.