Trade Developments and Networks By Way of The Indian Ocean.

Timeline created by rapatel93
  • 5,000 BCE

    Ancient Fishing Boats

    This flat-bottomed boat is used for setting out from the coast, could be used with or without a sail. It has been said to be in use from 5000 BCE. These boats might have an outrigger for stability, and might be made of planks or a single log.
  • Period:
    1,500 BCE
    -332 BCE

    Phoenician Ships

    Phoenicians built very sturdy cargo ships which were very advanced for this time period. These trading ships were known as "gauloi", and had a giant rectangular sail in its center which could turn to catch the wind. They were generally between 65-100 ft long. The ships were designed to transport large amounts of trade goods.
  • 1,000 BCE

    Sugar Cane Cultivation

    Sugarcane originated in Southeast Asia. By 1000 BCE, it began to be cultivated on a larger scale in India. Sugarcane remained a luxury for cooking and sweeting and would spread widely with trade.
  • 1,000 BCE

    Aryan People Settle in India

    Aryan people coming from central Asia cross the Hindu Kush Mountains and begin to settle in India.
  • 1,000 BCE

    Banana Trade

    By 1000 BCE Bananas were cultivated in Southeast Asia, then traveled to India, and Africa. Bananas also spread as a crop and a food into China and parts of the Middle East during the Classical Era.
  • 1,000 BCE

    Navigation By Polaris

    While traveling across the ocean where no land was visible, Phoenician sailors stayed on the correct route by observing the location of Polaris, also known as 'Phoenician Star' by ancient writers. Polaris navigation allowed the Phoenicians to sail long distances and trade with many other foreign cultures with the knowledge of winds and ocean currents.
  • Period:
    1,000 BCE

    The Classical Era

    Classical Era spanned from 1000 BCE to 500 AD.
  • -900 BCE

    Domestication of Camels

    Domestication of camels played a huge role making trade possible in desert landscapes. They were used for long distance travel and trade within the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, Turkey and India, especially during expansion of the Silk Road and Spice Route.
  • -600 BCE

    Iron and Silk Introduced

    Iron Metallurgy was introduced in China in 600 BCE. Silk was also exported from China, to India, the Middle East and the Roman Empire.
  • Period:
    -563 BCE
    -483 BCE

    Buddhism Begins

    Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) lives from 563 BCE- 483 BCE. The religion of Buddhism emerges during this time.
  • Period:
    -551 BCE
    -479 BCE

    Confucianism Begins

    Confucius, the Chinese philosopher and politician lives during this period. His teachings directly influenced Chinese culture.
  • Period:
    -522 BCE
    -486 BCE

    Darius I Rules the Persian Empire

    Darius I rules the Persian Empire from 522 BCE- 486 BCE. During this time, Greek and Roman traders entered the Indian Ocean. Ceramics, gold, olive oil, and wine were traded.
  • -515 BCE

    Scylax Of Caryanda

    "Scylax of Caryanda made a voyage into the Indian Ocean from 510-515 BCE. He went exploring in the service of King Darius of Persia (528-468 BCE), who had heard of the riches of India and wanted to discover the mouth of the Indus River."
  • -450 BCE

    Zhang Qian

    In 138 BCE, Zhang Qian was sent by the emperor Wudi to make contact with the Yuezhi, an ancient culture that ruled parts of India and Bactria in Central Asia from about 128 BCE-450 CE.
  • Period:
    -430 BCE

    Athenian Plague

    The Peloponnesian War was fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. During the second year of this war, an outbreak of plague erupted in Athens. Disease spread through Egypt and Libya across the Mediterranean Sea into Persia and Greece. The epidemic killed upwards of 1/4 of the population of Athens, costing many lives as well as trading allies.
  • -336 BCE

    Alexander The Great

    Born in Macedonia in 356 BCE, he was declared king of that ancient Greek state in 336 BCE. An ambitious military commander, he led the largest army - a total of about 48,500 soldiers - ever to leave Greece. Over the course of eleven years, Alexander the Great defeated the Persian Empire (550-330 BCE) and extended Greek control over lands in western Asia, Egypt, Central Asia, and the Indus Valley.
  • -332 BCE

    Alexandria is founded

    Alexandria was a major hub of international trade. It connected trade routes from Rome to inner Africa, the desserts of the Arabian Peninsula, and Asia.
  • Period:
    -324 BCE
    -185 BCE

    The Mauryan Empire

    The Mauryan Empire was involved in Indian Ocean Trade, sending items such as silk, textiles, spices and exotic foods to Greece, Hellenic kingdoms, and West Asia.
  • Period:
    -202 BCE

    The Han Dynasty

    The Han Dynasty was greatly involved in the Indian Ocean trade to obtain gold, ivory, and iron as well as other items scarce in Asian countries. The Han Dynasty exported silk and paper.
  • Period:
    -27 BCE

    The Roman Empire

    The Roman Empire was a major empire involved in the Indian Ocean Trade. Their major trade partners included Spain, France, the Middle East, and North Africa. The Romans imported beef, corn, glassware, iron, lead, leather, olive oil, dyes, silk, silver, spices. Grapes, oil and grain were a few major exports of Rome.
  • Period:

    Aksum Kingdom

    Aksum was a wealthy kingdom that flourished between the first and seventh centuries. Aksum controlled the African gold and ivory trade. It exported gold, spices, incense, ivory to Greece, Sri Lanka, India, and Persia.
  • 900


    The purpose of the kamal was to determine latitude at sea by looking at the distance between the horizon and a single star at the same time each night. An alternative method for the same purpose is the use of fingers held parallel to the horizon.