Unit 2 Timeline: Enlightenment and Revolutions

Timeline created by cheeryllin
In History
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    Scientific Revolution (start to end)

    The Scientific Revolution was a period in which thinkers began to introduce the idea that everything was based on reason, challenging the previously Feudal idea that one should believe everything God and the Church says. This fundamental idea inspired the Enlightenment, further leading to various revolutions through ideals such as liberty, equality, and progress.
  • Galileo Galilei supports the heliocentric theory

    Challenging the Ptolemaic theory, Galileo's support and proof for the heliocentric theory strengthened the belief of science and weakened the teachings of the Church. This meant that everything needed to be questioned for society, promoting the idea of reason.
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    English Civil War (start to end)

    The English Civil War initiated due to King Charles' conflict with Parliament for governmental control. As a result of this war, England abolished the idea of divine right and concluded that reason must be the way to rule.
  • Hobbes’s Leviathan is published

    Written during the English Civil War, Hobbes' book presented the idea that humans are selfish beings and attempted to provide a reason for absolute authority. His writing gave the basis for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign.
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    Glorious Revolution

    Involving the overthrow of the Catholic King James II, the Glorious Revolution led to the power of Parliament to be placed next to the monarch, getting rid of absolute monarchy and serving as a path for popular sovereignty among the English government.
  • Locke’s Two Treatises on Government is published

    Serving as one of John Locke's most famous works, Locke makes clear that the arguments of the two treatises are continuous. His book presented the idea that people are entitled to natural rights. He strengthened his idea in which a constitutional monarchy should be put in place.
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    Enlightenment (start to end)

    The Enlightenment was the surge of new ideas, giving way for philosophers to create and construct new ideas such as social contract, equality, natural rights, etc. These new ideals served as attributes an ideal society should obtain and became key factors in the initiation of various revolutions, such as the American and French.
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    Diderot Publishes First Volumes of Encyclopedia

    Most famous for representing the principle work of the Enlightenment, Diderot's Encyclopedia spread the kind of progressive thinking that eventually led to the French Revolution. The aim of this writing was to reform the way people thought and for the people to be able to inform themselves. Authorities marked his work as dangerous and had the Encyclopedia banned in France.
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    Louis XVI’s reign (start to end)

    As the last king of France, King Louis XVI was considered a tyrannical and corrupt leader. Under his rule, the French Revolution began as a result of his constant neglect of the people and careless government spending on personal interest. The revolution erupted mainly due to the unjust government under his monarchy.
  • Lexington and Concord

    Caused by the American desire for self-governing, the Battle of Lexington and Concord marked the start of the American Revolutionary War and America's stance against Britain's monarchy as well as America's ideal for liberty.
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    American Revolution (start to end)

    The American Revolution secured the independence of the United States from the rule of Great Britain. Serving as the reason for the Declaration of Independence and Consitution, these documents inspired various French Revolution documents such as the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen.
  • Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence was the document declaring the separation of the United States and Great Britain. This document embodied the ideals of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness and served as a guide for the constitutions of other countries onwards.
  • National Assembly is formed in France

    Consisting of the members of the Third Estate, the National Assembly represented the common people and was formed as the result of the lack of representation in the government for the lower estate. The Assembly demanded Louis XVI reform the government and wrote the DOROMAC, securing the rights of the French and promoting various Enlightenment ideals.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    The Tennis Court Oath was a pledge created by the National Assembly to refuse to separate until a new Constitution was drafted. This oath signified the growing unrest against Louis XVI, laid the foundation for later events such as the DOROMAC and Storming of Bastille, effectively ending the absolute monarchy in France.
  • Declaration of Rights of Man

    Inspired by Enlightenment philosophes and the American Declaration of Independence, The Declaration of Rights of Man (and Citizen) was a document created by the National Assembly that secured the rights of the French people. This document prevented further governmental corruption and promoted Enlightenment ideals into French society.
  • Legislative Assembly is formed in France

    The Legislative Assembly was the governing body of France created under the National Assembly and the new constitutional monarchy. This replaced the National Assembly, creating revolutionary laws promoting Enlightenment ideals through political debate. The Legislative Assembly was later replaced by the National Convention
  • Bill of Rights signed

    The Bill of Rights serves as the first ten amendments of the American Constitution. Written to secure the rights of the people and limit the powers of the government, this document proved a true example of popular sovereignty.
  • Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Women is published

    Wollstonecraft's work demanded better treatment towards women and called for radical changes within the education system, arguing that women are capable as much as men. Her publication advocated for equality for women.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    After being accused and charged with treason due to failure to address financial problems and attempt to escape, Louis XVI was executed by guillotine, marking the death of the last king of France.
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    Reign of Terror (start to end)

    The Reign of Terror was a period in which the French leader of the Committee of Public Safety, Robespierre, began ruling as a dictator rather than the "incorruptible" man he once was. His corrupt rule led to the death of over 40,000, 85% of them being peasants. This time period exercised the opposite of enlightenment ideals, popular sovereignty, and natural rights and led to France's fear of radical ideas. The end of the reign led to the third constitution.
  • Execution of Marie Antoinette

    Following nine months after her husband King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette was also accused of treason and guillotined to death. This event marked the death of the last queen of France.
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    Napoleon’s coup

    Napoleon's coup overthrew the system of government under the Directory in France and replaced it with a three-member Consulate. Establishing Napoleon as the first consul, the coup served as a path for Napoleon's later rule and is viewed as the effective end of the French Revolution.