Western Civilizations (Course Timeline)

Timeline created by rflores5124
In History
  • 1304

    Petrarch & Niccolo Machiavelli

  • 1400

    Europeans can now sail farther and faster than they had before

    They can do this with the use of new and improved technologies such as the astrolobe, new ships, and more accurate maps and charts.
  • 1440

    Invention of the Printing Press

    The printing press was a vital part of the calling for reform in the church and society in general. It served as an effective form of book production that meant more books were being produced and so they were spreading more. Books like the bible and other secular works were now cheaper and much more accessible.
  • 1473

    Nicolaus Copernicus -

    He hypothesized that the universe was heliocentric and that the stars and planets did not move in perfect arcs across the sky. While he wasn't the first one in history to think this way, he was the first one to back his claims with factual evidence.
  • 1488

    The Portuguese

    They led the way in overseas exploration traveling down the west side of Africa. In 1488, when Bartholomeu Dias rounded the tip of southern Africa, they took control of all trade on the eastern side of Africa. They reached the west coast of India in 1497, losing many men, but the expedition was still very profitable. By the 1530s, Portugal had become a world power with a vast trading empire. They also began the transatlantic slave trade in the 1500s.
  • 1492

    The Spanish & The Treaty of Tordesillas

    The Spanish sent Christopher Columbus in 1492 to look for a shorter route to Asia. Both Spain and Portugal were focused on building their empires but didn't want to clash in the process, so they sign the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, splitting the world in two amongst themselves. This treaty ignored the wants of other countries to build up their own empires, so these countries ignored it. In 1519, Hernan Cortes lands in Mexico and in 1532, Francisco Pizzaro invades Peru.
  • 1492

    The Columbian Exchange

    The Columbian Exchange is what we call the vast global exchange between the "new world" (Americas) and the "old world" (Europe).
  • 1500

    Ptolemaic World

    He followed Aristotle and believed that our universe was geocentric with all the planets and stars orbiting in perfect circles around the Earth with God/Heaven in the outermost sphere. Few people questioned this because, since there was no telescope yet, it matched people's observations and also their biblical view.
  • 1509

    John Calvin

    In what is now Switzerland, he led the reform movement against the Catholic Church, very much like Calvin. He only differed in his beliefs in that he believed in predestination, the idea that God decided who would go to heaven or hell, and that your choices don't influence this.
  • 1514

    Advances in Medicine

  • 1517

    Martin Luther and his 95 theses

    Martin Luther was a monk/teacher who protested the corruption and greed of the church by listing his 95 reasons against its indulgences and later posting them onto the church's door. The church excommunicated him for this and yet many Germans still supported him and so his teachings spread. His followers called themselves Protestant because they were protesting the church and papal authority.
  • 1534

    The Anglican Church and King Henry VII

    King Henry wanted a divorce from his wife (because she didn't bear him a son) and since it wasn't allowed in the catholic church and the pope wouldn't annul his marriage, he took over the church in England, placed it all under his power, and banned the Catholic religion. Anglicans kept all the basic Catholic principles but replaced the position of the pope with the King.
  • 1545

    The Catholic Reformation & the Council of Trent

    During this time, the Catholic church tried to reform itself from the inside amidst the growing public pressure. The Council of Trent was formed to reaffirm catholic doctrine and take steps to end church abuse and the corruption of its officials.
  • 1555

    The Peace of Augsburg

    There was fighting between princes who adopted Lutherism and those that stayed Catholic. This was stopped by the Peace of Augsburg which basically said that each prince had the right to decide which religion(s) would be practiced on their land.
  • 1564

    William Shakespeare

    He was a man who dealt with universal themes of human complexity and also classical themes and realistic everyday settings. He wrote in a vernacular language which meant that people could easily understand his comedy and what he had to say.
  • Rebellions in Europe

    From the 1590s to the 1650s, the lower-classes were revolting throughout Europe as a result from religious prosecution and monarchs who wanted to have complete control. This system is called an absolute monarchy and was popular in the early 1600s. There were religions wars in France which were ended in 1598 with the Edict of Nantes which granted religious liberty to the Huguenots.
  • Galileo Galeliei

    He discovers that Jupiter has moons, which leads him to conclude that the universe is not in fact, geocentric. He later also discovers that since the moon has craters and the sun has spots, the universe can't be perfect, heavily contradicting Ptolemy's theory and in doing so, the church. He undergoes trial for this and denies his previous claims in fear of his life. But while the church could burn/ban his books and silence him, they couldn't stop his ideas since they were already spreading.
  • The Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years war was a war that started in 1618 and ended in 1648. It originally started as a war between Catholics and Protestants but ended as a political war. This is said to be the last of the religious wars, as well as the most destructive. The Peace of Westphalia ended this war in 1648. After the end, religion becomes to be separated from politics.
  • England and Limited Monarchy

    There were two poles of authority and power developed after King Henry wanted to kick the Catholic church out of England, the monarchy and parliament. They fought a civil war in the 1640s and during this war the cavaliers (King Henry and his supporters) were defeated by the roundheads (landed gentry let by Oliver Cromwell). Cromwell went on to dissolve Parliament from 1653-1668. After a couple more decades of religious strife, the English monarchy is turned into a limited monarchy.
  • King Louis XIV

    King Louis XIV's reign lasted from 1643-1715 and he believed himself to chosen by God to rule over France. He lavishly spent his countries money, dunking the country into debt. He ended the Edict of Nantes.
  • the Energy Revolution

    This kicked off with the beginning of the use of waterpower from rivers and waterfalls to create electricity and power factories and mills nearby. After this came steam power with inventions such as the steam engine and power locomotives/ships.
  • the Textile Industry

    Since England received a lot of cotton from its colony in India, the demand for faster machines to produce cloth grew which led to inventions such as the cotton gin, the spinning jenny, and the flying shuttle.
  • Transportation

    In the early 1700s, turnpikes (private roads) became popular builds for entrepreneurs who wanted to cash in on the toll for their use. Later, in the late 1700s-early 1800s, canals were dug to connect rivers together to connect inland towns with coastal ports. Bridges were strengthened and harbors/ports expanded. By the 1830s, steam-powered locomotives were pulling carriages along iron rails.
  • Beginnning of the French Revolution

    On this date, hundreds of Parisians stormed the Bastille in the hopes of taking the weapons stored there and freeing the prisoners. This was a powerful symbol for the revolution. That August, the National Assembly issued the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen"
  • Women's March on Versailles

    This event was when thousands of women marched to the Palace of Versailles demanding relief and for the King to return to Paris (he had fled because he was frightened). The royal family agreed and became prisoners in their own palace. This was caused by the King/Queens ignoring of the state in which the people were in. They refused to accept the National Assembly's reforms (1790)
  • Reign of Terror

    The Reign of Terror happened after the execution of the royal family and it was during the time when the fighting with most of the countries of Europe was especially high. The people were starving, both sides were calling all the men to fight, and many were being accused and killed for being counter-revolutionary. This reign was led by Maximilien Robespierre (who was also later executed after the people got sick of his influence). A new constitution was written in 1795.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte

    He was a popular and brilliant military officer who became extremely influential during the war. He won many victories against the Habsburgs and using this popularity, he entered the world of politics. He overthrew the weak and corrupt French Directory in 1799 and crowned himself emperor in 1804.
  • Medicine and Health (IR)

    Louis Pasteur shows the link between microbes and disease which helps the people begin to understand that germs cause disease and so hygiene habits rise and people bath more often (death rates from infection go down). Anesthesia is also developed during this time and doctors begin to sterilize their equipment and wash their hands frequently.
  • Napoleonic Wars

    These wars lasted from 1804-1812 and happenned when Napoleon led France in wars against all the most powerful European countries. He attempted to defeat the British navy, but couldn't and sent 600,000 soldiers to invade Russia. But Russian soldiers destroyed villages and supplies to keep the French without vital supplies since they knew they couldn't defeat them with their numbers. Only 20,000 of those men made it back home. After this, Napoleon abdicated and was exiled (twice).
  • Council of Vienna

    This was established by the heads of various European countries to create a lasting, peaceful system in Europe with its main goals of protecting the monarchies, maintaining a balance of power, and crushing any remains of the revolution.
  • The Second Industrial Revolution

    This is said to have dated from 1817-1914 and included the invention of steel, electric lightbulbs, gasoline-powered automobiles, the first airplanes, telephone/telegraph, and the radio. This was also the time when electricity began to replace steam as the dominant source of power.
  • Karl Marx and the Communist Manifesto

    Marx formulated a new theory (scientific socialism) and worked together with Fredrich Engels to write the Communist Manifesto in 1848. They thought this would help bridge the divide between the classes by essentially making everyone equal since everything is shared.
  • Assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    This is said to be the event that started the war. Austria declares war on Serbia. Russia, allied with Serbia begins to prepare for war. Germany responds by declaring war on Russia in support of its ally Austria. Germany also declares war on France and invades Belgium to attack them. Britain declares war on Germany in August of 1914.
  • the Turks of the Ottoman Empire join the Central Powers and commit the 20th centuries first genocide against Armenians (1M killed)

  • Allies and the Treaty of London

    This treaty was signed by the allied forces during WWI in which they promised to defend each other and fight together against the Central Powers.
  • The End of the War

    Lenin and his Communist Party come into power and sign a treaty with Germany and ends their participation in the war. The US enters the war on the side of the Allies (after 3 years) and President Wilson issues his Fourteen Points. Germany is forced to accept full blame and pay for damages in the Treaty of Versailles (would play a big role in the start of WWII).
  • The Rise of the Soviet Union and Mussolini

  • The Great Depression

    This was the longest, most severe economic downturn to strike the industrialized world. Begins in the US and spreads to the rest of Europe. Japan was also affected by this.
  • The Rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party

    The popularity of the Nazi Party was on the rise by 1930 and in 1932 they became the greatest party in the German Parliament. He then allies with Stalin to help him invade Poland. This invasion of Poland is said to be what begun the war.
  • Nazi Germany invades Poland

    At this, Britain and France declare war on Germany. The Soviet Union attacks Finland and so Britain/France take over Norway in an attempt to take over Germany's supply of iron ore. But Germany forces Britain/France to retreat until France falls. The last of the English troops escape at Dunkirk. (Just before France falls, Italy joins the Axis powers and declares war on the Allies.
  • Tripartite Act

    The Tripartite Pact was essentially the forming of what we call the Axis powers. (Hungary and Romania also join, mainly for protection)
  • Hitler attempts to invade the Soviet Union

    Stalin is unprepared for this attack and so his troops are easily surrounded and outnumbered. Until winter arrives and Hitler's troops must stop. Stalin calls in troops from the Siberian front trained to fight in the cold and this is the beginning of the end for the Nazi reign.
  • Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor

    Japan bombed the American base of Pearl Harbor in an attempt to take out American ships in order to invade Southeast Asia (colonized by the US and Britain at the time). Due to this Roosevelt declares war on Japan. Britain also declares war on Japan, and Germany declares war on the US. The mainly European war has now turned global.
  • The Fall of Germany and Japan

    Germany fell on May 7, 1945, and Japan was close behind, falling on September 2, 1945. They surrendered after the US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Mr.Marques' H.Western Civ. class begins

  • Period:

    The Renaissance

    A "rebirth of ancient greek and roman civilization." There was a focus on life instead of life after death, exploring the human experience, and individual achievement. This was also the beginning of humanism or the intellectual movement which focused on secular subjects. Basically a whole new movement to change the way people had thought in the past.
  • Period:

    European Exploration

    They aren't discoveries since there were already people on the lands they visited. One of the main reasons that Europeans decided to begin exploration was because many countries had adopted mercantilism (an economic policy that aims to strengthen a countrys' economy through the accumulation of gold and silver) and wanted to cut out the middleman (overland routes from Asia-Europe) in order to be able to make more profit on traded goods.
  • Period:

    Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

    The Scientific Revolution (1500s-1600s) was born of renaissance humanism and during it, people began to base their beliefs on facts and not assumptions. They relied on reason and the use of experiments and tests to prove their ideas correct. This lead to the Englightenment in the 1600s-1700s during which writers/philosophers questioned the old-world values of religion and absolutism. Many of them faced censorship.
  • Period:

    The Protestant Reformation

    The Protestant Reformation was about the people of the church and the church itself attempting to change all the wrong-doings within the church. It was about how the church had become more political and its leadership was getting farther away from the needs of the masses of Catholics.
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    The Age of Absolutism

    Absolutism is a type of monarchy in which the King(Queen) holds supreme power over their country.
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    Industrial Revolution

    This period stemmed from the Scientific Revolution. It began in Great Britain (due to the number of materials available there) and slowly spread to the rest of Europe. In the 1700s, wealthy landowners began to enclose much land, often forcing peasant and farmworkers off their land because they couldn't compete with such big companies. So these people migrated to big cities where there was no shortage of factory jobs.
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    French Revolution and Napoleon

    By the 1780s, France's poor spending had made the bad harvests even worse because that meant the government had to raise prices, launching millions (more) into poverty. People began to riot, demanding bread and sustenance.
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    This was caused by the competitions, imperialism, and nationalism between European countries in the 1800s.
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    The Treaty of Versailles caused the German economy to collapse and this led to hyperinflation in the German mark and so a new agreement had to be made to allow Germany to recover (1924).