Voyage of ColumbusThis journey...
- put the North American continent on the map and spread rumors of granduer to be found there.
- popularized a new age of exploration into the great North American expanse, opening the door for European expansion into the continent.
- brought a vast array of new livestock, technology, and diseases to the Native American peoples.
Columbus: Most Important (1400's)The voyage of Columbus discovered the Americas, which is arguable the biggest event of the 15th century. It introduced Europeans to the natural reserves and native peoples of the region, changing the landscape on both sides of the Atlantic forever.
Raphael's School of AthensThis painting...
- came to symbolize the marriage of art, philosophy, and science that was unique to the Renaissance.
- provided documentation of the major scholars and creative geniuses of the time, as well as those with major influence on humanism.
- incorporates humanistic patterns in both its subject matter and style, providing future generations with supreme example of the artistic specificities of the time.
95 ThesesThe posting of these theses...
- introduced Luther's problems with the Church to the world.
- kickstarted the Protestant Revolution by garnering support from the general public.
- changed the ecclesiastical and social ways of life of Europe.
Cortez Conquers the AztecsThis event...
- ushered in centuries of Spanish rule over the area.
- introduced the spanish language, culture, and religion to the native peoples.
- opened the door for European exploitation of this new land, and in the end was responsible for the great Atlantic Slave Trade.
The Sack of RomeThe fall of this great city...
- debilitated the League of Cognac.
- shifted the balance of power away from the Pope and towards the Emperor.
- caused Rome, which had been a center for the High Renaissance, to suffer massive destruction and population decline which caused renaissance thinkers to disperse.
Act of SupremacyThe passing of this historic act...
- established Henry VIII as the supreme head of the Church of England and made him the sole source of power.
- severed ecclesiastical ties with Rome and the Pope.
- allowed him to divorce his wives in an effort to produce a male heir.
Fall of ConstantinopleThe fall of this great city...
- greatly affected trade in the region, taking away one of the major trade bases of the area.
- led to the fall of the Byzantine Empire, clearing the way for the Ottoman Turks to become the dominant power of the region.
- forced Greek and Roman scholars into Italy, reviving the Italian Renaissance.
Copernicus - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly SpheresThe publishing of this book...
- challenged traditional connections of religion and science
- stated that the sun was the center of the universe and paved the way for future cosmic discovery
- proposed that we do not occupy a special or privileged place in the Universe
Beginning of the Council of TrentThe establishment of this council...
- embodied the counter reformation in response to the Protestant reformation.
- defined the Catholic doctrine and made great decrees on self reform.
- helped revitalize the Roman Catholic Church.
Peace of AugsburgThe passing of this treaty...
- allowed both the Christians and Lutherans to freely practice their religions in private.
- decided that local rulers would determine the religion for their citizens, either Catholicism or Lutheranism.
- ended the religious conflict and violence between the two.
Edict of NantesThe passing of this treaty...
- obliterated memory of previous religious conflict from the official memory of the state.
- established Catholicism as the official religion of France.
- allowed Calvinists to hold government office, educate themselves, and practice their religion in specific places.
Cortez and the Aztecs: Most Important (1500's)I believe that the establishment of Europe in the Americas was arguably the most decisive occurrence of the 16th century. This event ushered in a wave of cultural, idealogical, and agricultural trade, introducing a slurry of new plants, animals, religions, political ideas, and diseases to both Europe and the Americas. It was the effective connection of the globe through the Columbian Trade.
Start of 30 Years WarThis bloody religious conflict...
- in the end marked the beginning of the modern state system, fragmenting most of Europe.
- resulted in the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire as its provinces greatly declined.
- resulted in the fall of the Hapsburg Powers.
English Civil WarThis bloody war...
- made important developments in military, economic, and technological advancements.
- declared England as a republic.
- abolished the office of the King and the House of Lords.
Peace of WestphaliaThe passing of this treaty...
- established Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Catholicism as acceptable religions.
- resulted in the German territories' descent into fragmentation and localism.
- ensured secularism become the predominant force behind political decisions.
Beheading of Charles IIThis historic death...
- lead to the abolishment of the monarchy in England.
- allowed Oliver Cromwell to take control of the English commonwealth.
- took a positive step towards democracy in England.
Ottoman Siege of ViennaThis seige...
- failed to take the city of Vienna.
- marked the end of the Turkish expansion into Europe.
- weakened the city of Vienna significantly.
Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural PhilosophyThe publishing of this book...
- established the laws of gravity as a force attracting all matter in the universe.
- helped to advance the fields of physics , astronomy, mathematics and natural sciences.
- laid the foundations of classical mechanics.
Glorious RevolutionThis upheaval...
- established the power of Parliament to rule British affairs.
- freed the colonies from strict anti-Puritan laws.
- lead Britain into a constitutional monarchy.
Locke - Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingThe publishing of this essay...
- established that everything we know, we discover through personal observation.
- eradicated technical terms from philosophy that made no sense.
- established that knowledge of God was not innate but learned.
Newton's Laws : Most Important (1600's)I believe the most important event of the 1600's was the publishing of Newton's Laws of the Natural World. This piece of work laid the foundations of classical mechanics and provided definitive laws of the natural world on which to base other scientific revelations. They allowed other scientists of the time to build off of a universal set of laws.
Peace of UtrechtThis agreement...
- marked the rise of Great Britain under Anne.
- ended dominating French ambitions.
- secured the balance of power.
Start of Frederick the Great’s ReignThe reign of this king...
- lead his nation through multiple wars with Austria and its allies.
- expanded and consolidated Prussian lands through advanced military tactics.
- transformed his kingdom into a modern state and established Prussia as a european power.
Start of 7 Years WarThis world war...
- vastly increased Britain's land in North America and changed economic, political, and social relations between Britain and its colonies.
- plunged Britain into debt, leading to the American Revolution.
- lost French land possesions in North America and Asia.
Rousseau – The Social ContractThe publishing of this book...
- helped inspire political reforms or revolutions in Europe, especially in France
- argued against the concept of divine right and challenged monarchs who claimed authority from God.
- said that the people are sovereign and entitled, if not required, to overthrow unsatisfactory governments.
The Wealth of NationsThe publishing of this book...
- marked the birth of capitalism.
- began the study of the science of economics.
- introduced the theory of the "Invisible Hand"
Steam EngineThis invention...
- provided quicker transportation.
- brought people into cities and created more jobs.
- helped to power the Industrial Revolution.
French RevolutionThe beginning of this bloody revolution...
- Established the constitutional monarchy in France
- Lead to the Reign of Terror and subsequent bloodshed
- Caused Prussia and Austria to fear uprisings in their own countries
Reign of TerrorThis period of suppression...
- Ended the lives of around 17,000 Frenchmen
- Suppressed any and all opposition to the Republic within France
- Defended against outside dangers to the Revolution
Napoleon's CoupThis coup...
- Overthrew the government under the Directory in France.
- Cleared the path for the despotism of Napoleon.
- Effectively ended the French Revolution.
French Revolution: Most Important (1700's)I believe that the French Revolution was the most important event of the 18th century. It ignited a series of revolutions, overthrows, and political reformations and served as the inspiration for a wide array of reform movements. It essentially changed the political landscape of Europe.
Napoleon's Invasion of RussiaThis failed invasion...
- Halted Napoleon's expansion across Europe
- Exiled him to the island of Elba
- Lost many French soldiers to cold, starvation and disease
Battle of WaterlooThis decisive battle...
- Ended the Napoleonic era in France
- Cause Napoleon to abdicate for the second time
- Officially ended France expansion across Europe
Congress of ViennaThis meeting...
- decreased the size and power of France.
- grew the power of Prussia and Britain.
- increased nationalism in countries under foreign rule, which in turn led to revolutions.
Revolutions of the 1830'sThis wave of revolutions in Europe...
- overthrew King Charles X in France, moving from one constitutional monarchy to another.
- led to recognition of the independence of Belgium by the Dutch.
- led to the establishment of popular/constitutional monarchies throughout Europe.
Revolutions of 1848These revolutions...
- led to the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary.
- ended the absolute monarchy in Denmark.
- introduced significant cultural and societal change.
- introduced representative democracy.
Communist ManifestoThis published work...
- ignited revolutions of the proletariat throughout the world.
- challenged the political and social order.
- outlined the class struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat and sparked unrest in the middle and lower classes.
Crimean WarThis bloody war...
- Lead to the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
- Cemented an alliance between France and Britain.
- blocked Russian expansion into Eastern Europe and the Middle East.
Austro-Prussian WarThis historic war...
- shifted the power of the German states away from Austria and towards Prussia.
- Germany was unified under the Prussian Emperor.
- Italy received Venetia.
Unification of Germany