José Mariño_G&H_4G

Timeline created by josémariño
In History
  • Period:
    1492
    to

    Modern History

    The historic period from the discovery of America to the French Revolution.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary History

    The Contemporary Age is the historical period that ranges from the year 1789, with the French Revolution, to the present day.
  • Estates-General Meeting

    Estates-General Meeting
    A legislative and consultive assembly which had to be convened by the king, divided in the three different estates. It had no power: was an advisory body to the king.
    In 1789, the last time that it was convened was 174 years ago
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    French Revolution

    Revolutionary movement that took place in France between 1789 and 1799, and marked the end of the ancien régime.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    After the members of the French Third Estate were locked out by Louis XIX out of the meeting, they went to the Tennis Court and they oath never to separate until they established a written constitution for France.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The third state met in Versailles and decided to start a revolution. For this, they needed arms and gunpowder so they broke in the Bastille to collect them and also free some prisoners.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    March where thousands of women, due to high prices of food in Paris’ markets, marched to Versailles, where they forced the king to abandon his palace and go to Tuileries Palace.
  • First French constitution

    First French constitution
    They abolished guilds and created a new army force to protect the revolutionaries. To fix the crisis, they obligated the privileged to pay taxes.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    A document that denied women civil rights like property, legal and fiscal equality or the right to vote.
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    Constitutional monarchy

    Form of monarchy in which the king exercises authority in accordance with a constitution. This was the first phase of the French Revolution after Louis XVI was forced to accept the National Assembly.
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    Social Republic

    The second phase of the Revolution, that caused the monarchy to lose most of its followers. It was ruled by the radical bourgeoisie, first the Girondists (1792-1793), and the Jacobins (1793-1794).
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    Girondin Convention

    The first half of the second phase of the french revolution, the Social Republic, that was ruled by the moderates.
  • War of the First Coalition

    War of the First Coalition
    War declared by the Legislative Assembly to Austria and Prussia, given that Prussia and Holy Roman Empire oathed to help Louis XVI against revolutionaries.
  • Storm of Tuileries Palace

    Storm of Tuileries Palace
    The sans-culottes stormed the Touleries Palace and imprisoned the royal family. This event signals the end of the Constitutional Monarchy and the beginning of the Social Republic.
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    Jacobin Convention

    Second period of the National Convention when the Jacobins, the most radical sector of the bourgeoisie, seized power. The Committee of Public Safety, leader by Robespierre, had the executive power and enacted a new constitution.
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    Reign of Terror

    A period of the French Revolution when they were Counter-revolutionary revolts and plots. They were also executions
    under the Law of suspects.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    The execution of Louis XVI by guillotine was one of the most important event of the French Revolution that took place at the Place de la Révolution in Paris. The National Convention had convicted the king of high treason in a near-unanimous vote, finally they condemned him to death by a simple majority.
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    Conservative Republic

    During this republic, Jacobin laws were cancelled, sufragge was censitary and the executive power was held by the Directory. A new constitution was approved in 1795. It faced the opposition of the aristocracy and the common people, and it ended with a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte.
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    The Consulate

    The Consulate was a period of autocratic and authoritarian rule in France lead by Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon was named consul in 1799 and aspired to put an end to the political instability of the French Revolution, consolidate some of the revolutionary principles and promote economic recovery through a government that represented the interests of the bourgeoisie.
  • Coup of 18th Brumaire

    Coup of 18th Brumaire
    Napoleon Bonaparte organised a coup (Coup of 18th Brumaire) supported by a large part of the bourgeoisie and started and authoritarian rule. The French Revolution was over.
  • Constitution of 1800

    Constitution of 1800
    New political system
    - Ø Separation of powers and declaration of rights.
    - Very limited liberties and public opinion censured.
    - Separation of powers and declaration of rights.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    In 1804, after being crowned emperor by the Pope, Napoleon kept conquering Europe with the help of his army. After Austerlitz in 1806, the Napoleonic army became unstoppable. In 1808, Spain was invaded and Joseph Bonaparte, one of emperor's brother, was proclaimed the new king. In 1811, the empire reached its zenith but after the failure of the invasion of Russia in 1808 and the revolts against Joseph in Spain in 1812 caused the end of the Napoleonic Empire in The Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope after the beginig of his conquest.
  • Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king

    Invasion of Spain and Joseph Bonaparte crowned king
    Spain was invaded and Joseph Bonaparte was made king.
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    The Restoration of absolutism

    The four great powers (Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria) reshaped the European map to their advantage: Ø the peoples and their nationalist aspirations.
    France returned to its borders of 1792 and the Napoleonic Empire
    was divided among the victors.
  • Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty

    Congress of Vienna and Holy Alliance Treaty
    It was a congress between Britain, Prussia, France, Russia and Austria,
    Was organized by the Austrian Chancellor Metternich. It's objectives were:
    - Stop the spread of liberal ideas.
    - Restore absolutism. Absolute monarchs would unite against any threat of liberal revolution (Russia + Prussia + Austria) creating the Holy Alliance Treaty.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Imperial armies were defeated in Waterloo by Great Britain and Prussia.
    After that Napoleon abdicated and was sent to exiled to Saint Helena.
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    Greek War of Independence

    The Greeks were part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries.
    They had to pay high taxes, were excluded from state administration jobs and were dominated by people with different religion and culture.
    1822. Greeks declared independence (not recognized by the Turks).
    1827. Greek victory thanks to French and British military intervention help.
    1830. Recognized independence.
  • Revolutions of 1830

    Revolutions of 1830
    The Congress of Vienna did not respect the liberal principles or the nationalist aspirations of some European peoples causing this revolutionary wave.
    Two main opposition forces appeared:
    - Liberalism: Political philosophy that says that people are free and have fundamental rights (Constitutions).
    - Nationalism: Political philosophy that defends the right of nations to exercise their sovereignty and create their own state.
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    The Age of the revolutions

    This period of time includes the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Empire...
    After the fall of Napoleon, a new wave of liberalist revolutions started.
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    The Belgian Revolution

    After the Congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of the Netherlands divided into:
    - Kingdom of Holland (protestant and absolutist).
    - Belgium (catholic and liberal). 1830 -39: Armed conflict after Belgium’s declaration of independence.
    1839: Recognition of independence. Liberal monarchy ruled by Leopold I.
  • Zollverein

    Zollverein
    It was a customs union that unified the majority of the German states. It was made by Prussia.
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    German Unification Process

    In 1834 the Zollverein was created by Prussia. The 1st freely elected German parliament offered the German crown to the king of Prussia in 1848, but he rejected it because the German parliament was liberal. In 1861 Wilheim I became king of Prussia and he made Otto von Bismarck chancellor. Prussia declared war to Dennmark, Austria and France in 1862, 1866 and 1870 respectively, and won all the wars. In 1871, Wilheim I was made Kaiser of the Second German Empire (Reicht).
  • Revolutions of 1848

    Revolutions of 1848
    People lived under the rule of an empire (Austrian, Russian and Ottoman) or were fragmented into various states (Germany and Italy).
    Rise of liberalism + expansion of nationalism = pursuit of independent nations free from the control of absolutist empires.
    In the Austrian empire, nationalistic uprisings based on liberal principles appeared in different places. And in France, a popular uprising proclaimed the Second Republic.
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    French Second Republic

    It was republic proclaimed by a popular uprising in France during the Spring of Nations. This republic adopted several democratic measures, like universal male suffrage, press freedom or the abolition of death penalty. It also demostrated the importance of workers as a political force and recognised some of their rights.
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    Italian Unification Process

    The monarchy of the Kingdom of Piedgemont and the Prime Minister Cavour started a unification process, declared war to Austria and annexed Lombardy. Garibaldy led a popular uprising and defeated the absolute monarchies in central and south Italy.
    In 1861 Victor Manuel of Saboy was proclaimed king, in 1866 Austria left Venetia and in 1870 the Papal Stated were annexed. The capital was placed in Rome.